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Basis up on which this proposal is bound to be written by is the core subject of“Organisational Culture" and the coercive affects that innovation and technology have had on it within the new dynamic era of strategic business. Feasibly the context idea of the proposal is to look into how successful organisations have innovatively implemented technological change, identify the organisational impacts up on its culture and evaluate whether these changes were beneficial for the organisation in the tong and short run of its course. The scenario of the proposal is to identify two successful modern or reinvented medium sized organisations, evaluate their advances in change, and identify affects of its organisational behaviour and how they managed the change, whether it is its employees or its general business strategy and mission. The inevitable question to answer upon the research in the end is whether more businesses should adopt organisational change with the perspective of innovation and technology to maintain a competitive advantage and how they can achieve this.
Rational Justification
Literature Review:
Organisations today are knowledge based organisations and their success and survival depend on creativity, innovation, discovery and inventiveness. An effective reaction to these demands leads not only to changes, in individuals and their behaviour, but also to innovative changes in organisations to ensure their existence (Read, 1996 cited in Martins & Terblanche, 2003). To ensure survival and continued prosperity, businesses must meet challenges by providing a constant stream of new and improved products, processes and services. Creativity and innovation have a role to play in the change process for survival. The result is that organisations and leaders try to create a framework in which creativity and innovation will be accepted as basic cultural norms in the centre of technological and other changes. Various authors have emphasised the importance of organisational culture and the appearance for it to have an influence on the degree to which creativity and innovation are stimulated in an organisation (Martins & Terblanche, 2003).
Johnson and Scholes (cited in Irani; Sharp and Kagioglou, 1997) define culture as being the deeper level of basic values, assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization. These values, assumptions, attitudes and beliefs are reflected within an organizational culture and are noticeable in many forms ranging from the rites, rituals and routines that take place within an organisation to the language used, the symbols, loges and artefacts that are found throughout a company. Therefore, an organizational culture is considered to be a set of collective norms that govern the behaviour of people within the company.
Organizational culture seems to be a critical in the success of any organization. The basic elements of organizational culture influence creativity and innovation in two ways. First through socialization processes in organizations, individuals learn what behaviour is acceptable and how activities should function. Norms develop and are accepted and shared by individuals. In accordance with shared norms, individuals will make assumptions about whether creative and innovative behaviour forms part of the way in which the organization operates (Chatman, 1991 and Louis, 1980 both cited in Tesluk et al., 1997). Secondly the basic values, assumptions and beliefs become enacted in established forms of behaviours and activity and are reflected as structures, policy practices and procedures. These structures impact directly on creativity in the workplace, for example by providing resource support to pursue the development of new ideas (Tesluk et al., 1997).
Organizational culture affects the extent to which creative solutions are encouraged, supported and implemented. A culture supportive of creativity encourages innovative ways of representing problems and finding solutions, regards creativity as both desirable and normal and favours innovators as models to be emulated (Lock and Kirkpatrick, 1995).
Scott and Bruce (1994) suggest that innovative behaviour is influenced by the climate for innovation, which is a product of leadership, work group relations and problem solving present in the organisation. Therefore, leadership appears to be a central factor in the development of effective culture in organisations. The boardroom agenda theory (knox, 2002) states that culture and climate are part of four aspects that sustain an innovative organisation, in addition business leaders have to create the right climate in which innovation can thrive.
Kleiner and Vere (1997) also identified leadership to be a key success factor within successful organisations. They furthermore point out that High-level leaders are made more effective in every way if the systems over which they control are made vital by tapping into the potential creativity and motivation of lower levels of management and workers. They stress the point to which Leaders do not create motivation but they unlock or channel existing motivation. Effective leaders tap those which serve the purpose of collective action in pursuit of shared goals.
Up to now much of the covered literature review has been based upon the basis of how organisational culture can incorporate and help manage technology and innovation. But in researching through key resource channels, much of the conceptual framework on the two areas are mostly based up on very large multinational organisations and lack coverage over the actual impact of technological & innovation change on organizations that are smaller in size. Whilst they study the bigger picture of organisational change they also only look into the latest high cost technological or innovative methods that in theory smaller organisations cannot benefit from.
The fundamental aim of paper is to draw up a guideline for smaller organisations on how they can incorporate organisational change in perspective of changing their culture to enable technological and innovative methods to become a norm in their way of working.
Key aims:
Demonstrate the need for Technological & Innovative change
Illustrate successfully sustained practises adopted by organisations in an attempt to highlight positive attributes.
Sustain the critical downfalls of not adapting with the dynamics of the markets
Develop a structured guide on the availability of new business solutions to enable a more modern working environment.
Focus on bringing new managerial perspectives and theories into the work place
First and formal objective of the paper would be to take on board majority of the management content learnt with in my MA and incorporate all the foundational theories into developing the framework of the dissertation. Regarding the actual content of the dissertation the following will take precedence:
1. Investigate the history of organisational behaviour, its elements and identify the causing factors of change within recent years.
2. Identify current practises and review academically covered works to discuss the their theoretical details
3. Identify studies of larger organisations that incorporate the current practises to evaluate their success of failure with it.
4. Locate two modem small/medium business and research into how their
  organisation incorporates and manages technology and innovation. How it implemented these changes, what adverse reaction did it receive from employees and also what benefits or downsides they experienced. The key benefit with this objective is to gain a more realistic perspective of advances that are up to date and can be related to similar size organisations.
5. Look into the current future drivers and innovators to sustain a future perspective of what's to be expected with in organisational culture.
6. Evaluate all theoretical secondary and primary research to draw up results
7. Critically evaluate results against any academically theorized work and proceed with creating a guideline from allocated data
In view of the proposal and the research carded out it is cleady illustrated that
organisational culture is adaptively a key role player in managing innovation and technology. The main role of organisational culture can be expressed simply in the form of a facilitator. Cultures that are modern and adaptable in creating feasible climates for development of innovation seem to be evidently apparent in the two examples illustrated in the essay. As expressly demonstrated the theory of authors used clearly point out that organisational culture and its enabling factors such as proactive leaders can lead to innovative outcomes through where appropriate the use of technology.
In my personal approach to organisational culture I view leaders and communication systems such as knowledge management to the critical factors of organisational culture that a play a role in managing innovation and technology. Leaders at each level are the supporting foundations to employees. In any scenario they facilitate, if done affectively, guidance in the right direction. With the help of communication systems that enable advanced sharing of knowledge and leniency towards individual ideas the possibilities can be said to be productively unknown. As a postgraduate management student I
highly view organisations to move aside from autonomous cultures and tall hierarchies and adopt a more communicative approach.
Personal Justification:
The general topic of organisational behaviour is an every growing and changing field, specifically when its incorporated with the two leading factors, Technology & innovatior it cannot be ignored or not kept up to date with. My interest into topic is based on my personal lack of experience within working environment and thus the study into it is an enabler for me to incorporate an idea to develop with me giving me ability to implement it more affectively in practise. The secondary purpose in choosing this topic to base a dissertation on leads back to early work covered in my MA to which I found this topic to be the most intriguing and highly enthusiastically interesting how varied differences in behaviour can take precedence.
In a more critical approach I view the subject or organisational behaviour vitally important in the essence of a Managerial background education and view it as a necessity to have a detailed personal study into the subject. Furthermore the topic itself is very broad and its subcategories cover many aspects that I've been studied within the duration of my MA, therefore allowing me further enhance my own learning experience.
Anticipated Methodology:
As with any academically based paper majority of the theoretical secondary data will be strictly based on journals sourced from resources of EBSO, Emerald and the likes. The significant reason for this approach is obtain justified, reviewed, unbiased, reputable information that can be recognised as being valid. Much of the relating aspects from the objectives, for example the historical aspects of organisational behaviour are going to be based on secondary data. Books will also base a vital key source of information as majority of authors themselves too adopt work journals and evaluate them against more modern arguments and theories, giving a fresher insight into old and new comparison. Whilst under the Athens Iogin page there are many other sources of databases that will be looked into. Where needed as a means of gathering media coverage on the topic articles from reputable news websites will be used (but only as a least means). Electronic researching will take precedence as much as possible where it can be obtained much easier, quicker and convenient for gathering key data rather then an entire scope of work which causes more delays in analyses. If and required the university, local and British library will be used to source various articles that I may come
across that cannot be located online, it has been the case where some older articles or books are not available and need to be brought in.
In regards to field research a key marketing research will be adopted in the form of managerial face to face interviews where feasible. Where options are limited a distinct set of direct detailed questions will be drawn up and emailed, posted & faxed to relevant given forms of contact by the organisations. Much cannot be asked for in regards to getting a firm appointment as with many times in the past gaining access to such means of contact have been minimal with disappointment with in the results where a short brief telephone interview was conducted. Furthermore to gain a downstream view of organisational behaviour and its affects on sustaining technology and innovation, qualitative based questionnaires will be created, giving the employee a chance to openly answer and discuss their point of view allowing a better perspective into how they perceive matters. Quantitative questions may arise in the questions to allow some numerical data and graphs to be drawn up. The basis of the entire primary research will be focused on two medium sized organisations. First steps in locating such companies that are firstly correct for the means of my research will be to contact a previous lecturer and get guidance of any contact he/she may have. The second approach would lead down to careers department, with their vast scope of contacts a short of list of companies that may seem viable will be made and contacted. Thirdly and more the wisest option to read trade articles and magazines that are abundantly covering successful organisations. The internet will play a big role in locating and communicating with these companies and will take precedence within all research.
Timetable of Key Activities:
Please find enclosed a Gant chart (Appendix 1) of the following steps that will preside in the course of the dissertation write up
Step 1
Secondary research & Summarisation
Locate candidates for primary research
Step 2
Primary research & Summarisation
Review back over research & identify any gaps in research
Step 3
Analyse all date gathered - proceed to draw up plan outline for dissertation
Step 4
Write up first drafl of dissertation
Step 5
Review work covered and attain supedvors guidance over covered work so far
Step 6
Review feedback - proceed to cover missing parts and go ahead with writing up final rough version of dissertation
Step 7
Present final rough version for review and await feedback.
Commence changes and adaptations required from given feedback
Step 8
Draw up final version of dissertation and have it reviewed for judgement quality and grammatical error by piers
Step 9
Cover any last minute changes - bind and hand in assignment by deadline
In reflection to the criteda's of the dissertation and the means required to gain information the only resources required are already present and not much more is extra needed (in thought at this stage). The location of the organisations that may be chosen may mean travelling but these would most likely be London or outer London based, costs would be minimal.
In review of the proposal and the question raised for the dissertation I view to an extent that this chosen methodology and objectives are sound and viable to base a research study. Whilst it may be said many existing studies on the subject of organizational culture exists, not many can be found that are more suitable and feasible for smaller organisations to implement. In a market where smaller businesses struggle to compete with larger organisations they are more likely to require a competitive edge, and that can be gained from a culture that welcomes innovation and technology which is achievable for them.
In reflection on feasibility of the proposed project I view, I have sustained an idea more too personal interest then a need to create such a project. A project that can be used later on with justification in the work place, a means of demonstrating my knowledge of the field I studied. In regards to the idea and acceptability of the proposed project I can openly state that is not a by far a complicated or unjust idea but at the same time much of it will be beneficial in drawing up history, current and future practises as a guideline.
The only downside aspect in relation to this proposed idea is the notion of incorporating two organisations to base research on. Whilst many at first hand are open to helping but the final quality of data from experience is always questionable. If first hand interview are achieved then by far those cannot be faulted, but in contrast questionnaires sent via post always bring back disappointing results. A care will need to be taken in sustaining a valid set of primary research result. At this present stage that is the only aspect that I have great caution over.
1. Irani, Z; Sharp, J, M; Kagioglou, M. 1997. Improving business performance
through developing a corporate culture. The TQM Ma.qaz ne Volume: 9 Number. 3 Page: 206-216.
2. Lock, E.A., Kirkpatrick, S.A., 1995, "Promoting creativity in organizations", Ford C.M., Gioia, D.A., Creative Action in Organizations: Ivory Tower Visions & Real World Voices, Sage, London, 115-20.
3. Martins, E.C.; Terblanche. F. 2003. Building organidational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management Volume: 6 Number: 1 Page: 64 – 74
4. Scott, S. G. and Bruce, R. A. (1994) 'Determinants of Innovative Behaviour: A Path Model of Individual Innovation in the Workplace', Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580-607.
5. Kleiner, B. H. Vere, s;. 1997. Practices of excellent companies in the retail industry. Managing Service Quality Volume: 7 Number 1 Page: 34- 38
6. Tesluk, P.E., Faar, J.L., Klein, S.R., 1997, "Influences of organizational culture and climate on individual creativity", The Journal of Creative Behaviour, 31, 1, 21-41.
分析收集所有的日期 - 论文着手拟订计划大纲
评论反馈 - 继续弥补缺少的部分,并提前写论文最后的粗糙版本
覆盖最后一分钟的变化 - 绑定和转让手期限
1。伊拉尼,Z;夏普,J,M,Kagioglou,M. 1997年。提高业务绩效
通过发展企业文化。 TQM的Ma.qaz的东北卷数:9。 3页:206-216。
3。马丁斯,E.C. Terblanche。 F. 2003。建设organidational文化,激发创造力和创新。欧洲杂志创新管理卷:6号:第1页:64 - 74
5。克莱纳B. H.维尔; 1997年。实践在零售行业的优秀企业。管理服务质量卷:7号1页:34 - 38
6。 Tesluk,PE,FAAR,JL,克莱因,SR,1997年,“组织对个人创造力的文化和气候的影响”,该杂志的创意行为,31,1,21-41。