Coexistence and environmental welfare deficit trade surplus
Trade promotes economic development through trade growth after joining the WTO led China's economic growth. December 11, 2001 China officially became a WTO member country, after China's trade growth is very rapid. This change from the following figures available evidence: in 2001 exports totaled 2.20244 trillion yuan, in 2002 was 2.69479 trillion yuan in 2010, is 10.09875 trillion yuan. Compared with 2001, ten years is a 359 percent growth rate, average annual growth rate reached 18.4%. Total imports side, 2001 was 2.01592 trillion yuan, in 2002 was 2.44304 trillion yuan, in 2010 was 8.92691 trillion yuan, the total growth rate was 343%, compared with 2001, the average increase is 18%. Import and export trade to economic growth (in GDP index as a reference value) contribution rate is maintained at a high of nearly a quarter, or about 9% of the average GDP growth rate of 25% was driven by the export trade The. 2001 import and export contribution rate was 15 percent and 13 percent, from 2002 to 2010, the average import and export contribution rates were 26% and 28%, of which 2003 the highest value reached 60% or more.
At the same time, Chinese people enjoy in reducing the environmental benefits. Environmental benefits are in addition to basic human survival conditions are met under the premise of seeking fresh air and clean water and other environmental rights needs, and to ensure intergenerational equity and sustainable environmental rights. Statistics found that, after joining the WTO significant increase in China's energy consumption and pollution emissions is also expanding, our country does not already exist mild carbon emissions provinces. Compared with the U.S., with the world's leading economies, bilateral trade because of differences in complementary leaving China maintained a trade surplus of more than ten years, at the same time, China is also accused of being the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases. The study data show that from 1994 to 2001 the connotation of polluted conditions index grew steadily, peaking in 2001, followed by a smaller trend. China joined the WTO in imports from the United States included the amount of pollution increases, the amount of pollution reduced exports included. United States, by contrast, with the expansion of trade liberalization and international trade division of labor adjustment mode, the United States due to his country's imports of goods and services for the benefit of their people, to meet their development needs a large number of manufacturing plants transferred to other countries, will also be large part of the carbon emissions shifted to other countries. On the contrary, China has become a "world factory", and with the trade surplus expanded to undertake a large number of people in other countries to meet the needs of carbon emissions.
Balancing the interests of trade and environment Economic Explanation
The relationship between trade and economic growth theory has always been the focus of debate, environmental aspects into which the contradictions become more intense. People are always difficult to balance the crux of the long-term and short-term interests, stage of economic growth and sustainable environmental benefit, enjoyment and environmental benefits of people's material between.
First, the stage of economic prosperity need to be vigilant pollution spread. Environmental Kuznets theory that economic growth and environmental pollution inverted U-shaped relationship between, only when the economy develops to a certain stage (generally considered America's per capita GDP reached $ 10,000, or some other country's per capita GDP reached $ 6,000 time), pollution, possible improvements. However, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions long-term trends are not consistent with the Kuznets curve, ie normal energy consumption of exhaustible resources are scarce, as human carbon dioxide emissions while increasing living standards improve, this can sometimes lead to rigidity the environment can not be repaired, or more than the threshold of the environment resulting ecosystem collapse, resulting in environmental capacity dropped significantly. China's current economic development level is still not reached Kuznets turning point, at this stage if the blind pursuit of environmental objectives while ignoring China's economic development is not consistent with real-world needs.
Secondly, the international trade environment, the total effect of damage. International trade to bring economic development, concomitant environmental effects has not given number. The environmental effects of trade is broken down into structural effects, technical effects and economies of scale in three aspects. Structure effect is based on the theory of comparative advantage specializes in the production and export of their products have a comparative advantage, comparative disadvantage imports of other products, making the country's output structure changes. Technical effect is mainly because consumers prefer green products and cleaning up the environment resulting from spills of environmentally sound technologies, production units of the total social product reduces environmental pollution, generally positive effect. Scale trade bring economic growth generated by changes in pollutant emissions, in general, how much economic growth, emissions will be a corresponding increase in the number. China empirical data show that comparative advantage is concentrated in a relatively clean, labor-intensive industries, comparative disadvantage more concentrated in capital-intensive pollution, land-intensive and energy-intensive industries, import and export trade growth and the structural trade surpluses are negative effects and economies of scale, and far more than the positive impact of technology-induced change, and thus, at this stage of the environmental effects of trade surplus is negative, ie increased environmental pollution, environmental damage to the total effect.
Third, import and export products structural contradictions caused environmental degradation. Study confirmed the data, China imported products are mainly concentrated in the petroleum processing industry, mining industry, chemical industry and other carbon-intensive industries, the export of products and more from the wholesale and retail trade, clothing, electronic equipment manufacturing, etc. low-carbon emission industries. Comparing import and export of complete carbon intensity, exports to other countries is much less than the imported pollution bring domestic pollution, and with the trade surplus continued to expand import and export structure will inevitably exacerbate the effects of negative environmental impact. Based on current export pattern, exports are not the main cause of environmental pollution, on the contrary, is the growth in imports led to the domestic environmental pollution spread.
Fourth, the cross-border pollution makes China become a "foreign garbage" paradise. Trade liberalization makes pollution flows from developed to developing countries, developing countries with lower environmental standards, pollution-intensive products has become a refuge. Those with higher environmental standards in developed countries, on the one hand in order to meet the domestic business community get votes to support the government would prefer to perform a lower environmental standards, resulting in the world as a whole rather than on the low environmental standards will be high; On the other hand, in order to curry favor with the radical environmentalists, they frequently denounce the low standards in developing countries to bring a lower level of average environmental benefits, require relatively uniform environmental standards and fair competitive environment. For the optimal level of global environmental benefits considered the world are looking to solve transboundary pollution internalization pathway. Cooperative game theory-based inter-state cooperation plan requires concerted action within the body member states transfer of emissions or pollution must take concerted action to reduce costs, through international financial transfers or bilateral tariff reduction to share domestic abatement costs. However, the uneven distribution of income under the conditions of international cooperation