浏览: 日期:2020-06-10

Small micro-enterprise development, the quality of foreign trade, foreign direct impact on export growth and socio-economic stability and healthy development. Because of their size, financing difficulties, weak anti-risk awareness and ability, in the context of the current foreign trade downturn, many small and micro enterprises, "a single weak connection", "have not received" missed opportunities, hindering development. Therefore, to strengthen foreign trade enterprises to small micro multidimensional support.
First, the rise of small and micro enterprises and development of foreign trade
On the one hand, the large number of small and micro foreign trade enterprises. Over the past three decades the development of small and micro enterprises in our country very quickly, a huge number. According to China International Cooperation Association of SMEs "issued by China and healthy development of small and medium micro enterprises report (2012)," the end of 2011, the national industrial and commercial registration is indeed enterprise 12,531,000, 37,565,000 individual businesses, including small and medium enterprises and micro enterprises accounted for 99.7% of the total. A total national export enterprises small and micro enterprises 188000, China accounted for 73% of the total number of export enterprises, concentrated mostly foreign workers. According to statistics, in 2011 exports of small and micro enterprises in Beijing more than 5,000 export enterprises in Beijing accounted for over 80% of the total number of small and micro enterprises in 2011 to achieve exports of $ 2.75 billion, in solving the employment, promotion of exports and stimulate economic growth and security social stability has played a positive role.
The other hand, the proportion of foreign trade volume is growing. Small and micro enterprises in foreign trade turnover in the proportion is increasing, provided export more than 60% of total exports, for example, exports of small and micro enterprises in 2010 accounted for 72% of all exports in 2011, exports of small and micro enterprises to create Percentage of 65%. Foreign trade data from the local government can also see the growth of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade growing out of proportion, for example, from January to June 2012, Shaoxing County, export performance of small and micro enterprises 2729, an increase of 212 home, exports increased to $ 1.81 billion, with an average growth rate of 2.3 percent, the county accounted for 38.3% of total exports.
Government foreign trade enterprises to small micro-policy support is gradually increasing. September 12, 2012, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to discuss "the steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of opinions" to determine the eight policy measures to support the development of foreign trade, the meeting noted that the expansion of the scale of financing, reduce financing costs, support commercial banks to small and micro enterprises efforts to expand trade financing, increasing export enterprises that meet the requirements of the loan. September 16, 2012 the State Council issued the "State Council on promoting the steady growth of foreign trade a number of observations (Guo Ban Fa [2012] No. 49)", on the State Department's eight measures were refined. Subsequently, the district also implement the State Council issued the "steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of views," the implementation of the document, according to the different characteristics of foreign trade over from foreign policy to support small and micro enterprise development.
Second, the development of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade problems
Since the 2008 financial crisis, shrinking demand in the international market and international competition under the dual pressure, small and micro enterprises as small scale, weak anti-risk ability and other factors, affected more severely, to explore the international market is facing greater pressure, survival and development more difficult.
(A) orders increased risk
As the debt crisis in Europe and America, and now foreign customers often extended credit period, small and micro enterprises bear the risk alone does not start, can only stand and missed orders. Electrical Co., Ltd. Chongqing Jin Sen Poer such business mainly export General Generator main export regions including India, Cambodia, Africa and other countries and regions, this year, enterprises operating rate was 60%, representing a decrease of three to 40%. Has anyone ever refused to take delivery at the port of African buyers, nor with returned or resold, the last 50,000 dollars to 17,000 U.S. dollars of goods by customs cheap at auction. Ten single business to run as long as a single one, profits all gone. For risk issues to consider, a lot of small and micro enterprises in order not to bear a single run risks, would prefer not to take foreign orders.
(Two) financing difficulties
Large financial institutions loan financing current high threshold, strict requirements, financing guarantee system is not perfect, coupled with the presence of small and micro enterprises is small, weak anti-risk ability, financial management is not standardized, loan management is difficult and other deficiencies, and financial institutions to lend prudential policy conflicts, resulting in a lot of good prospects for the development of small and micro enterprises is difficult to obtain bank credit support and other financial institutions are often faced with the dilemma of funding strand breaks, was in serious financial difficulties.
(Three) increased labor costs
In recent years, with the economic and social development and the increased mobility of workers across the country especially in economically developed coastal areas of frequent "labor shortage" phenomenon, recruitment difficulties, labor expensive, hard to keep people have become affected and constrained enterprises to survive, important factor in the development and critical factor. Most small and micro enterprises are labor-intensive enterprises, there is a poor working conditions, long working hours, labor-intensive, employee benefits and safeguards are not in place and other issues, leading to business recruitment difficulties, to keep people harder. Corporate desperation, you can only pay through recruitment, improved benefits to people, so that labor costs continue to increase, a few years ago so that foreign companies would envy demographic dividend vanished.
(Four) export credit insurance rate is very low
Export credit insurance is a World Trade Organization (WTO) rules allow for the promotion of foreign trade and economic development of effective tools, but also the international practice, can help companies in the process of developing international market effectively avoid foreign exchange risks, increasing trade opportunities and expand financing channel to track the buyer information. After the insured, in the event the buyer bankruptcy, insolvency, arrears, reject the goods and other business risks, the buyer country outbreak of war, unrest, trade controls, exchange controls and other political risks, companies receive up to the amount of compensation for the loss of exports to 90 %. Foreign trade enterprises mostly small and micro stragglers, the state alone, in the first of the crisis affected trade, export credit insurance to protect small and micro enterprises to avoid foreign counterparty risks dragging account debts deadbeat. But it is precisely the most vulnerable to crisis insurance rates for small and micro enterprises has always been very low. In Shanghai, for example, currently there are about 15,000 small micro Shanghai export enterprises, but short-term export credit insurance insurance initiative of few, underwriting coverage is low. Coverage ratio is low, on the one hand is the enterprise awareness is still relatively weak, the other part of the business that the high risk premium rates higher in overseas markets, low risk areas is not necessary to buy.
Third, the development of small and micro enterprises multidimensional support foreign trade
(A) implement the national policy
To implement the State Council executive meeting "on the promotion of foreign trade steady growth in number of opinions" spirit of small and micro enterprises export credit insurance coverage, and guide to help small and micro export enterprises to avoid risks, to support small and micro export enterprises to explore the international market, local should be introduced to implement the State policy specific measures to promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example, the Beijing Municipal Commerce Commission and the China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation signed a "small and micro enterprises in Beijing (2011 Exports $ 1,000,000 (including) the following) the insurance of export credit insurance agreement," according to the agreement, Beijing for the 2011 annual export scale In the $ 1 million (including) or less, and in 2012 foreign trade export performance for the insurance of small and micro enterprises short-term export credit insurance. Yiwu City, introduced the "market dealers and small micro-credit insurance foreign trade companies to support linkage protection program", provides in July 2012 until the end of 2012, Yiwu 378 qualifying foreign trade circulation enterprises, small and micro insurance export credit insurance, the municipal finance "full pay." October 2012, Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Commerce, Department of Finance and the China Credit Insurance Changchun Office decided to start "one hundred small and micro enterprises export credit insurance support scheme" for the province last year, customs export data $ 3,000,000 following key industries, export potential of 100 small micro-export enterprises, the premium paid in full by the government.
(Two) to strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises
As the European debt crisis continue to simmer and weak global economic growth, China's foreign trade situation is still grim, financial institutions must strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises. Introduced a number of financial institutions for small and micro enterprises, low trade barriers, low-cost insurance and tailor-made package of financial solutions that can help to improve SMEs explore international market confidence and ability to cultivate new growth points of foreign trade. To promote foreign trade growth, financial institutions have taken a number of positive measures, such as CITIC Insurance Company of Shanghai in 2011 exports of $ 3 million below the small and micro enterprises presented export credit insurance policies, while reducing the insurance threshold and simplify insurance processes. CITIC Bank Insurance Company and Jiangsu were qualified nearly 400 small and micro enterprises to provide $ 1 billion in export insurance for small and medium sized foreign trade enterprises to provide three-year 10 billion yuan of intent financing support.
(Three) set up to support small and micro foreign trade enterprises special funds
June 2012 revised "SME development funds management approach" a big change from the original type of enterprise is to support medium-sized and small businesses two categories, into medium-sized, small and micro-enterprises three categories, which means poor ability to resist risks many micro-enterprises will be the focus of special funds to support. Also began to set over the foreign trade enterprises of small and micro special support funds, for example, according to the latest introduction of the "foreign trade enterprises in Ningbo City, a small micro-finance assistance funds use practices (Trial)", to support small and micro enterprises to develop foreign trade export tax rebate accounts managed loans, export financing and credit insurance policies chattel mortgage financing. From 1 July 2012 onwards, in line with the conditions of Ningbo small micro-finance services to foreign trade enterprises to provide financing, guarantees, chattel mortgage regulatory services and bad debts, to give a certain percentage of their actual bad debt bear the loss compensation, foreign trade of small micro- Managed Accounts enterprises to develop export tax rebate interest loans given to expenditure incurred, give no more than 30% and single companies received less than 20 million in interest subsidies. But like so specifically for small and micro Ningbo foreign trade enterprises of special funds is still rare, I hope the local government can treat small micro specialized foreign trade enterprise, after all, small and micro enterprises and domestic trade is still very large differences, the need for differentiated support.
(Four) to provide administrative services to facilitate customs targeted
To support the healthy development of small and medium micro foreign trade enterprises to cope with sluggish world economy and the European debt crisis adversely affected, shall facilitate customs administrative services targeted at improving customs supervision and services from the perspective of the policy to the extent permitted maximum limits to reduce the small micro-enterprise import and export customs clearance costs, and promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example Guangdong Customs Guangdong Branch led jointly launched to support small and medium micro enterprises import and export eight measures, including the promotion of customs duties applied electronic payment systems to encourage small and medium micro enterprises to use electronic payment of customs duties, customs clearance and cost-saving enterprise; promote the collection and facilitation, implementation of import and export commodities pre-price, pre-classified, pre-determination of origin; encourage qualified small and medium micro enterprises to choose the "territorial declaration, port clearance" clearance mode; fully open classification clearance reform, to encourage more qualified enterprises to enjoy the "low-risk quick release" clearance facilitation; pair of small micro processing trade enterprises to carry out foreign trade, customs, enterprise tripartite network management, to facilitate enterprises for contract approval, filing procedures; Customs port set up for small and medium micro enterprises work window, provide a "24-hour reservation clearance" services. This eight measures for small and medium micro Guangdong import and export of all aspects of import and export enterprises, targeted to simplify customs clearance process, saving companies the operating hours and cost, and allow more qualified enterprises can enjoy the "low-risk quick release "clearance facilitation.
一方面,大量的小微外贸企业。在过去的三十年中,小型和微型企业在我国的发展非常迅速,数量巨大。据中国中小企业国际合作协会“颁发的中国健康发展中小微企业的报告(2012年),”2011年年底,全国工商登记的确37,565,000 12,531,000企业,个体工商户,包括小型和中小型企业和微型企业占总数的99.7%。全国共有出口企业中国小型和微型企业188000家,占出口企业总数的73%,主要集中外国工人。据统计,在2011年出口的小型和微型企业在北京,在北京的5000多名出口企业占总数的小型和微型企业,到2011年达到2.75美元亿美元的出口80%以上,解决就业,促进出口和刺激经济增长,社会稳定和安全起到了积极的作用。
政府外贸企业的到小微政策支持的逐渐增多。 2012年9月12日,国务院总理温家宝主持召开国务院常务会议,讨论“外贸稳定增长的若干意见”确定的8项政策措施支持外贸发展的促进,会议指出,扩大融资规模,降低融资成本,支持商业银行向小型和微型企业,努力扩大贸易融资,提高出口企业对符合条件的贷款。 2012年9月16日,国务院颁布了“国务院办公厅关于促进外贸稳定增长的若干意见”(国办发[2012] 49号),国务院的八项措施进行了细化。随后,该区还贯彻落实国务院颁布的若干意见促进外贸“稳增长”的实施文件,根据外贸从外交政策的不同特点,以支持小型和微型企业发展。
为贯彻落实国务院常务会议“关于促进外贸稳定增长的若干意见”的精神,小微企业出口信用保险覆盖面,引导帮助小微出口企业规避风险,支持小微出口企业开拓国际市场,地方应出台贯彻落实国家政策的具体措施,促进对外贸易的发展,小型和微型企业。例如,北京市商务委员会和中国出口信用保险公司签署了“小型和微型企业在北京(2011年出口额1,000,000元(含)以下)出口信用保险的保险协议”,根据该协议,北京2011年出口规模在100万美元(含)或以下,并在2012年外贸出口业绩的小型和微型企业的短期出口信用保险的保险。义乌市出台了“市场经营户和小微信用保险支持外贸公司联动保护方案”,规定在2012年7月,直到2012年年底,义乌市378合格的外贸流通企业,小型和微型保险出口信用保险,市级财政“全薪。”黑龙江省2012年10月,商务部,财政部和中国信保长春办事处决定启动“百小微企业出口信用保险支持计划”,为全省去年,海关出口数据3000000美元重点行业, 100小微出口企业,由政府全额支付溢价的出口潜力。
2012年6月修订的“中小企业发展专项资金管理办法”类型的企业从原来的一个大的变化是支持中型和小型企业两大类,分为中型,小型和微型企业三大类,这意味着抵抗能力差许多风险微型企业将成为专项资金扶持的重点。也开始在外贸企业小型和微型专项扶持资金,例如,根据最新出台的“外贸企业在宁波市小微金融援助资金使用规范(试行)”,支持小型和微型企业发展外贸出口退税账户托管贷款,出口融资和信用保险政策动产抵押融资。 2012年7月1日起,符合条件的宁波小微金融服务,外贸企业提供融资,担保,动产质押监管服务和坏账,他们的实际坏账给予一定比例承担损失补偿外贸小微托管帐户的企业开展出口退税贴息贷款给予开支,给予不超过30%,单公司接受低于20万元的利息补贴。但是,像这样专门为宁波外贸小微企业专项资金仍是罕见的,我希望当地政府可以把小微专业外贸企业,毕竟,小型和微型企业和国内贸易还是非常大的差异,需要区别的支持。