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浏览: 日期:2020-06-10

(1)(a) Would you agree or disagree with the view that “the pillars of competitiveness take into account the microeconomic and macroeconomic foundations of national competitiveness based on the ideas outlined in Porter’s diamond of national advantage?” explain your position.
I totally agree with the opinion that the pillars of competitiveness take into account the microeconomic and macroeconomic foundations of national competitiveness, that is, the basic competitive power of a nation largely decides the whole competitiveness of enterprises in the country. According to the theory of Porter, the competitive advantages from the microeconomic and macroeconomic aspect can be seen from four perspectives, the productive materials, the demand situation, related industrial development and the enterprise strategy and so on. With regard to the productive material, it refers to the human resource, natural resource, knowledge, capital and basic infrastructures. The richness of these productive materials in a national can largely decrease the productive costs facing enterprises in the country. With respect to the demand situation, it can affect the market performance of enterprises. As to related supports from other industries, they largely affect the external operation environment of the enterprise. From the perspective of the competitors’ performance, they can influence the organizational strategy and corresponding operation of the enterprise. From above analysis, it can be seen that the pillars of the competitiveness must take the microeconomic and macroeconomic foundations of national competitiveness into consideration.
(b)Using any four of the efficiency enhancing pillars identified by the World Economic Forum, examine critically their relevance for competitiveness and international business.
Among all these efficiency enhancing pillars, the technology innovation, human resource management, cooperation with international partners, and the cross-culture management are four quite important factors. With regard to the technology innovation, it is an effective way to make good use of organizational resources, that is, the technology innovation can improve the productive efficiency to a large extent. At the same time, the technology innovation can largely save the productive costs facing the enterprise correspondingly. With respect to the human resource management, capital asset can be regarded as the most important factors for the production to some extent. The high efficiency of making use of the human resource can largely decrease other investments naturally. Also, the human resource can improve the competitive power of the enterprise by operating the organization in an organic way. From the perspective of the cooperation with international partners, it is necessary in the process of carrying out the international business. Good partnership with local and international businessmen can largely decrease the transaction cost by simplifying the transaction process. In addition, the cooperation can guarantee long-term term development of the business, which can also decrease unnecessary risks in a corresponding way. As to the cross-culture management, it is an effective way to create a harmonious environment in the whole organization especially under the background of the international business.
(2)(a) “Firms invest overseas, but they also export”. Explain why firms engage in this behavior, and identify the relevant theories of international theories of international trade and investment that help to explain this behavior.
It is quite common that modern firms invest in the foreign markets and also export their products and services. According to the theory of H-O, the country should import these products with scare resources and export products with rich resources. So, it is rational for these firms to export their products to the international market. At the same time, modern firms choose to make the productive process in the international environment and seek these resources that are scare in the domestic market. In the process, modern firms need to invest in the foreign countries in a natural way. From the perspective of investing in the foreign market, modern firms can make good use of cheap productive resources in the local market so as to decrease the productive cost correspondingly. At the same time, modern firms can lower the distance with local customers, that is, try to design products and services that are in correspondence with local demands. Definitely, investing overseas can largely improve the competitive power of modern firms. From the perspective of exporting to foreign countries, it can expand its market sphere and expand the marketing channel. From above analysis, it can be seen that it is rational for modern firms to export overseas and also invest in the foreign market.
(b) It has been observed that there is regionalization of trade in North America, Europe and Asia. What is meant by that? What are the factors behind it and what are the implications for business managers.
In the process of the globalization, the regionalization is quite obvious in some specific areas including North America, Europe and Asia because these areas are largely connected. In other words, the regionalization of these areas is a substitution to the whole globalization to a large extent. As a result, the influence of these areas is becoming more and more powerful with its fast development. Factors that contribute to the regionalization in North America, Europe and Asia, can be summarized from these following aspects. With regard to the geological distance, each country in the area is connected conveniently and it is easy for them to carry out the international trade and investment. With respect to the similarity, each country in the area is largely similar to each other, which is the basis for the regionalization to a large extent. As to the cultural background, members in each area are similar to some extent and it is easy for them to communication with others. Combining these factors, it is inevitable for North America, Europe and Asia to develop in a limited area. When considering the regionalization, business managers should learn to establish local partnership network so as to provide convenient operation environment for the future development.