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新西兰代写paper |Organisational Resources Strategy

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Organizational Resources Strategy


In today’s world where competitions are high, globally organizations are facing economical crisis and emergence of technology has made every organization to grow faster. Organization that needs to grow and make their reputation is adapting different strategies to increase their market value and build their reputation. Reforming of organizations is taking place in every corner of the world and has also included health care agencies. In any organization, human resources are the building blocks of it.

In the recent years it has been increasingly recognize that in the absence of those resources, organizations cannot grow. However due to reformation, many organizations have adapted many strategies and downsizing is one of the strategy. In this paper I will discuss about my organization issue and analyze this issue in the light of literature along with management theory. Moreover I will recommend strategies to handle that issue.

Description of Issue

Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) is one of the tertiary care hospitals which serve integrated health care services to public. It is a non profit organization which believes in providing quality care to its customer. Since last 25 years it is established. It has policy of retirement which says that retirement age of employees working in this organization is 60 years. (AKUH personnel policies and procedures manual). On last July 2007, AKUH went through voluntary early retirement scheme. The scheme was offered to permanent full time management staff (falls in grade 9 and above), who is between ages 50 and 58 years and have completed at least 5 years and those who have served the institution over 20 years.

This scheme was only one time offer. (circular for voluntary early retirement scheme). When this offer was announced, there was a chaos in the organization. Every day was started with same issue and was ended with same issue. I was curious why people are taking it so negatively. There were many questions arose in my mind. Why it was necessary for the organization to offer this? Why other people are taking it so negatively? What are the impacts of those approaches on an individual and organization? What are the other approaches to handle those issues? I will analyze my issue with the literature.

Analysis of the issue with reviewed literature

Administration of any organization has the responsibility to ensure that organization is growing effectively and competing with other organizations. Reformation is necessary in each organization. Reformation can be done through many strategies and downsizing is one of them. Downsizing is one of the strategies of reformation of the organization. According to Cameron et al. (as cited in Kulkarni, n.d.) “set of activities undertaken on the part of organizational efficiency, productivity and/ or competitiveness” (p.1). It is now a days a business practice and despite of its utilization, its implication is very hazy.

According to Cameron (as cited in Williams, n.d.) “Probably the most pervasive, yet, understudied phenomenon in the business world” (p. 2). The concept of downsizing is not new even in underdeveloped countries. It is mostly done in private companies and many companies and banks in Pakistan have gone through this process which includes Colgate-Palmolive and PIA, WAPDA, Pakistan Railways, Banks included Habib Bank Limited, United Bank Limited and Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited. (Khan, 2003).

Similarly in developed countries many companies like AT&T, IBM, Kodak and Xerox have approached this process. (William,n.d.). Many health care organizations have also gone through it which includes Sweden, America, Australia and many others. (Hertting, Nilson, Theorell & Larson, 2003; Young & Brown, 1998; Duffield, Kearin & Leonard, 2006).

There two different methodologies which were done to achieve downsizing at AKUH, one is workforce reduction and second is organizational redesigning. Workforce reduction was done through voluntary early retirement scheme and organizational redesigning was done by assigning the same position to individuals who have been evaluated for their capability and able to manage with high workload by their supervisors.

However they are confused and over loaded with work. Johns (as cited in Wagner, 1999) reported that those who perceive a significant role change or ambiguity declined in their work performance. On the other hand Bolman and Deal (2003) also assert that there is no guarantee of success in doing restructuring and it also takes time and resources.

The process of downsizing is very emotional for the employees and employer. Pawlicki (as cited in Brown & Young, 1998) also asserted that it is very disturbing for all nurses. Similarly it is one of the challenges of human resource also to handle the process because it creates dramatic behavioral changes in the environment. The impact of downsizing is traumatic for those who are facing it (victims) and for those who remain behind (survivors). (West 2000). There are many empirical studies have done to evaluate the impact of downsizing on employees.

Many research articles define positive impacts of it and many argued that it is not the effective approach of management which ultimately giving many adverse effects to the employees. It includes anger, frustration, and uncertainty of the job, depression, low morale and distrust of the employees for the employer. Noer (as cited in Brown & Young, 1998). This was similar happened at AKUH, when it was announced the employees who were falling on the set criteria were expressing the same feelings. Moreover other employees who were not directly involved were also having same feelings.

The department heads were also falling in the category so there was no body who could help in handling the grievances of the employees. When I talked to director human resource department AKUH, Surani, N. (personal communication, March 24, 2008) also affirmed that though they received many grievances but those employees were not handled properly at the departmental level so it was very difficult for human resource also to persuade them. Moreover it also translates in the care performance of the employees.

According to Wynne (2003) “Modifications are introduced to achieve performance improvement and the significant organizational change creates a decline in self-esteem for those directly affected, which in turn impacts on and can be attributed to a decline in performance” (p. 99). There are studies done to evaluate patient care mortality and morbidity because of downsizing. In a study of 281 acute care hospitals it was identified that significant increase in patient death occur when downsizing was implemented. (Cameron 1987).

At AKUH the scheme was announced for top down approach that is management staff were involved that also created fear for staff who were not falling on those criteria as before that, they were highly motivated to contribute their work in the organization however when they heard about the scheme, their morale was low as this could be done for them also. It is well said by Di Frances (as cited in Duffield, Kearin and Leonard, 2006) “the whole process of downsizing can create distrust and low morale, especially when junior staff perceives that the reword for long and dedicated service is retrenchment” (p. 44).

In contrast many research studies also confirm that it not only brings at employees level but negative effects are at organization level. A study done to evaluate the impact of downsizing on organizational level revealed that 46% of 1,005 companies were able to meet their objectives through downsizing however 33% met their profit goals and only 21 % companies increased their share holders’ return. In addition, 86% of those companies have gone through downsizing three to five years before the study. (Wagner, 1999). Looking at the statistics it seems that impact of downsizing was not benefit for the organizations.

On the other hand there are positive effects of it on an individual and organization. Heenan (as cited in Kulkarni, n.d) defined many positive out comes in an organization which includes decrease staff level, less time consuming for the establishment of any process, faster decision making, smoother communications, greater collaboration among other groups, increase productivity and increase organizational effectiveness.

According to Cameron, Freeman and Mishra (as cited in Williams, n.d) “from the study of thirty firms from the automotive industry that implemented downsizing policies actually improved their operational effectiveness” (p.6). Conversely it has a positive effect on employees. Evans (as cited in Kulkarni, n.d). While discussing report on small business claimed that this approach opens new opportunities for employees who wish to work. It increases team work, new learning opportunities are given, and increased productivity and more profit are gained.

The effect of this traumatic and emotional change is very difficult to do. When I inquired from director human resource department regarding setting the criteria of voluntary early retirement scheme, Surani, N. (personal communication, March 24, 2008). He informed that the company who had already gone through this process, ideas were taken from them and criteria were set.

Here I would strongly argue that the criteria which were taken from industrial company or business oriented company will not match with health care organization. Health care organizations are unique in nature and work force working in health care organization cannot substitute any modern technology. Director human resource department Surani, N. (personal communication, March 24, 2008) assured that the criteria were changes in the need of the context.

The reasons of downsizing are many. Many organizations do it to make revenue, controlling cost, increase productivity and to be in competitive world. At AKUH, it was done to remove unnecessary layers of employees, to give chance to others to work enthusiastically and help organization to achieve its goals. Similarly to change the attitude of entitle mentality.

Director of human resource also Surani, N. (personal communication, March 24, 2008) asserted that it was needed to change those attitudes. According to Wagner (1999) “in the workplace, entitlement exist when people have so much security that they are not required to produce… ability to perform in the new position” (p.3).

Change is difficult to introduce and manage. Many studies recommend that if the activities are planned then change is achievable. Any new change in the organization creates chaos among its employees.

While offering the scheme, it was a chaos around the campus. It was difficult to handle the situation. However if the change has to occur, it has to be dealt systematically. Here I would like to apply change theory of persuasion as in downsizing approach, human resources were involved.

Integration of change theory

Change is difficult to initiate however it is something to do to survive in the business world. The basic understanding of change helps organization to implement it. According to Garvin and Roberto (2005)

Our research into organizational transformation has involved settings as diverse as multinational corporations, government agencies, nonprofits, and high-performing teams like mountaineering expeditions and firefighting crews. We’ve found that for change to stick, leaders must design and run an effective persuasion campaign—one that begins weeks or months before the actual turnaround plan is set in concrete. (p. 1)

Before initiating any change it is indeed a need for organization to extensively plan for it. As illustrated by Garvin and Roberto (2005), a campaign through persuasion should run in order to make employees happy. (see figure 1) The four phases define by Garvin and Roberto (2005) can help organization to make it possible and easy to handle. One phase includes turnaround process and other three phases includes persuasion process. I will relate this campaign with my organization and try to identify gaps followed by its strategies.

In phase one, it is time to convince employees that change is required for the organization and discuss with employees why it is needed with organization mission and vision. Here at AKUH, all employees who were following in the criteria were not fully aware about it. Moreover as discussed earlier, mostly heads of the department were also falling in this category, so they were anxious and not able to convince other employees. In my opinion what I have learned from them that they were not aware about the new directions and were basically claiming that it is because of the changing of leadership in the organization.

Here the second phase talks about position and frame preliminary plan and gather feed back. This is the phase when leaders should announce the plan to the employees. Here AKUH issued memo to employees in which every detail was presented along with all clauses. Moreover a general memo was issued to each and every employee who was in grade nine and above. Phase three includes employees mood should be managed through constant communication. Here people were having problem.

Human resource department also received grievances however as heads of the department were not ready to accept change it was translated to other employees also. Employees were talking to each other however their views were not voiced out.

Once leadership group met with employees however still this was the time when employees were not in accepting phase. Here constant communication with employees needs to be handled very properly so that it helps employees to understand and accept the change. Phase four talks about reinforcement of behavioral guidelines to avoid backsliding.

This phase in my opinion is very important that if employees are facing behavioral changes it is time when through counseling and constant communication, employees’ negative effects on change can be handled properly. Moreover Gravin and Roberto (2005) also asserted that developing a plan and implementing a plan should consist of turnaround process and initiation of phase one, phase two and starting of phase three and implementing phase consist of phase four.


There are several recommendations and strategies are defined in the studies to implement downsizing and handle the aftermath of it. Abrahamson (as cited in Dixon, 2000) valued the importance of change moreover he asserts that change should not be disruptive to the organization. In order to implement the approach is to make sure that communication is done with all employees keeping the values and mission and vision and direction of the approach. There are many studies and literatures suggest that communication is the only key to success for this process. (Wagner, 1999; Young and Brown, 1998; David and Roberto, 2005; and Kulkarni, n.d).

It was also affirmed by director human resource that they have also learned how to handle the issue though effective communication. In addition, it is also recommended that all stake holders should be taken in confidence so that resistance to change can take place. The heads of the departments should be involved in phase one of the persuasion campaign so that it is easy for leaders to implement change.

According to David and Roberto (2005) “Managers must perform significant work up front to ensure that employees will actually listen to tough messages, question old assumptions, and consider new ways of working” (p.1). Conversely it is also recommended that honesty and dignity of the employees should be the agenda of the organization at all time.

It is also recommended that follow up surveys and researches in this regard also appreciate organization to learn and move according to the need of the employees. There are many researches done to evaluate the impact of downsizing. (Kulkarni, n.d.; Young and Brown, 1998; Wynne, 2003; Duffield, Kearin and Leonard, 2007; and Wagner, 1999). Research on this topic will help organization to understand employee’s views and help them to adjust for the change.

The final position after literature analysis on my issue I can reflect that downsizing is not a new concept though it is controversial. On the other hand it has much benefit at the organizational level and employees’ level. It helps organization to grow and give chance to others to grow however if it is handled through effective communication it can create positive impact on employees which helps organization to grow. If we address the issue of emotional aspects of change at the individual level and departmental level, it helps organization to take decision easily and achieve it goals.


Leaders are the one who take organization along with them. They are the one who influence people to accomplish organizational goals. Leaders’ prime responsibility is to think and behave strategically. In order to build the reputation and grow in the market it is necessary for the leaders to adapt to the need of the environment. Moreover change as a result of reformation has a significant implication on any organization.


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阿迦汗大学医院( AKUH )的公共服务综合医疗服务的三级医院之一。它是一个非赢利组织,它认为,在提供优质的服务给其客户。过去25年以来成立。它说,在这个组织中工作的员工的退休年龄退休政策是60年。 (的AKUH人员的政策和程序手册) 。在过去的2007年7月, AKUH经历了自愿提早退休计划。该计划提供永久的全职管理人员(下降9年级及以上) ,谁是50岁至58岁之间,并已完成了至少5年,超过20年的服务机构。
该方案是只有一次报价。 (圆形自愿提早退休计划) 。要约公布时,有一个组织中的混乱。每天同样的问题,并开始已结束,同样的问题。我很好奇,为什么人们如此负面。有很多问题出现在我的脑海里。为什么这是必要的,为组织提供这种?其他人为什么如此负面?这些方法对个人和组织有什么影响?还有什么其他的方法来处理这些问题?我会分析我的问题与文献。
任何组织管理的责任,以确保该组织的有效增长和与其他机构的竞争。改革是必要的,每个组织。改革可以通过许多战略和裁员是其中之一。裁员是改革的组织的策略之一。据卡梅隆等人。 (引库卡尼,ND ) “对部分开展活动的组织效率,生产率和/或竞争力” (第1-2页) 。它现在是一个天一个商业惯例,尽管其利用率,其言下之意是很朦胧。
据卡梅伦(引威廉斯, ND ) “大概是最普遍的,尚未充分研究的现象在商业世界” (第2页) 。瘦身的概念,是不是新的,即使在​​欠发达国家。它主要在私人公司和许多公司和银行在巴基斯坦已经走过这个过程,其中包括高露洁棕榄公司和PIA , WAPDA ,巴基斯坦铁道部,银行哈比卜银行有限公司,美国银行有限公司和巴基斯坦电信有限公司。 (汗, 2003年) 。
同样,在发达国家,许多公司,如AT & T, IBM ,柯达和施乐公司已经接近了这一过程。 (威廉不详) 。许多医疗机构也经历了它,其中包括瑞典,美国,澳大利亚和其他许多人。 ( Hertting ,尼尔森, Theorell拉尔森, 2003年年轻的布朗, 1998年;杜菲尔德, Kearin伦纳德, 2006年) 。
有两种不同的方法进行,以达到瘦身AKUH ,一个是劳动力的减少和第二组织重新设计。裁员通过自愿提早退休计划,并组织重新设计个人已经评价他们的能力,并能够管理高工作量由上级分配相同的位置。
然而,他们感到困惑和过载工作。约翰(引瓦格纳, 1999年)报道,他们的工作表现下降的那些谁认为一个重要的角色转变或含糊。另一方面鲍尔曼和新政( 2003年)还断言,也不能保证在做重组的成功,它也需要时间和资源。
瘦身的过程是非常情绪化的雇员及雇主。帕夫利茨基(如引布朗和年轻,1998年)也宣称这是非常令人不安的所有护士。同样是人力资源,也给处理过程中所面临的挑战之一,因为它创造了戏剧性的行为环境的变化。瘦身的影响是创伤性的那些人正面临着它(受害者) ,对于那些留在后面(幸存者) 。 2000年(西) 。有很多实证研究都做了评估裁员对员工的影响。
许多研究文章定义了它的积极影响,许多人认为,这是不管理的有效途径,最终使许多不利影响的员工。它包括工作,抑郁,士气低落和不信任的雇员为雇主的愤怒,挫折和不确定性。 Noer (引在布朗和年轻, 1998年) 。这是类似的事情发生了,当它被宣布员工设置标准下降AKUH表达了同样的感受。此外,其他员工不直接参与,也有同样的感受。
各部门负责人也在下降的类别中,所以没有谁可以帮助身体在处理员工的不满。当我跟主管人力资源的部门AKUH Surani , N. (个人通信2008年3月24日)还重申,虽然他们收到了很多怨气,但这些员工并没有妥善处理厅级,所以它是非常困难的人力资源还说服他们。此外,它也意味着在照顾雇员的表现。
据怀恩( 2003年) “修改引入到实现的性能改进和重大组织变革,建立自尊心的下降直接影响,反过来影响和性能的下降可以归结为” (第99页)。有研究做了评估病人护理瘦身因死亡率和发病率。在一项研究中, 281例急性护理医院,经鉴定,显着增加病人死亡时发生减员实施。 (卡梅伦1987 ) 。
在AKUH宣布该计划涉及自上而下的方法,是管理人员,员工不属于这些标准,在此之前,也创造了恐惧,他们强烈的动机在组织贡献自己的工作,然而,当他们听说计划,他们的士气低落,因为这可能是他们也做。说得好迪弗朗西斯(引杜菲尔德Kearin和Leonard , 2006年) “ ,尤其是当基层员工的感知,长期尽心竭力服务的竞争情境裁员瘦身的全过程,可以建立不信任和士气低落” (P 44) 。
相比之下,许多研究也证实,它不仅带来员工的水平,但负面影响是在组织层面。精简组织层面上的影响,以评估所做的一项研究显示, 46 %的1,005家公司能够满足他们的目标,通过裁员,但33%的达到自己的利润目标,只有21 %的企业增加其份额持有人回报。此外, 86 %的公司已经通过裁员三到五年之前的研究。 (瓦格纳,1999年) 。寻找的统计数据似乎影响瘦身不利于组织。
另一方面,它也有积极的影响,对个人和组织。希南(引库卡尼, ND )定义在一个组织中,其中包括减少工作人员的水平,少费时建立任何进程,加快决策速度,更顺畅的沟通,其他团体之间的协作,提高生产力和增加了许多积极的出组织效能。
据卡梅伦,弗里曼和米什拉(引威廉斯, ND ) “从来自汽车行业的30家企业的研究,实施减员政策实际上提高了运营效率” (第6页) 。相反,它有员工产生积极的影响。 ·埃文斯(引库卡尼, N.D ) , 。在讨论报告声称,这种方法对小企业开辟了新的机会,谁愿意工作的员工。提升团队工作,新的学习机会,提高生产力,获得更多的利润。
创伤和情绪的变化的影响,这是非常困难的事。当我询问从主管人力资源的部门设置的标准,自愿提早退休计划, Surani , N. (个人通信2008年3月24日) 。他获悉,该公司已经走过这个过程中,想法从他们采取的标准设置。
在这里,我坚决认为不符合卫生保健组织取自工业公司或业务为导向的公司,我们的准则。医疗保健机构在性质上是独一无二的,和卫生保健组织工作队伍的工作不能代替任何现代技术。董事人力资源部门Surani , N. (个人通信2008年3月24日)向标准在需要的情况下发生变化。
裁员的原因是多方面的。许多组织收入,控制成本,提高生产率,并在竞争激烈的世界。有人做过在AKUH ,删除不必要的层员工,让其他人满腔热情地工作,帮助组织实现其目标。同样更改态度赋予的心态。
人力资源总监也Surani , N. (个人通信2008年3月24日)称,它是需要改变这种态度。据瓦格纳(1999 ) “在工作场所,权利存在,当人有这么多的安全,他们不须出示执行能力在新的位置” (第3页) 。
改变是困难的开始,但它是做在商业世界中生存。改变基本的了解有助于组织实施。根据加尔文和罗伯托( 2005 )
我们的研究涉及到组织变革已经设置为不同的跨国公司,政府机构,非营利组织,和喜欢登山探险和消防工作人员的高绩效团队。我们已经发现,坚持变化,领导人必须设计和运行有效的劝导活动开始前数周或数月的实际周转计划设置在混凝土。 (第1页)
进行任何更改之前,这的确是一个需要组织广泛计划。诚如加尔文和罗伯托(2005) ,通过说服活动,应该运行,为了使员工快乐。 (见图1),这四个阶段加尔文·罗伯托(2005)定义,可以帮助组织,使其能够和易于处理。其中一期包括周转过程等三个阶段,包括说服过程。我会将我的组织活动,并尝试找出差距,其次是策略。
在我看来,这个阶段是非常重要的,如果员工都面临着行为上的改变,它是通过咨询和不断的沟通,员工的负面影响变化可以妥善处理的时间。此外, Gravin和罗伯托(2005)还断言,制定计划和实施计划应包括周转过程,开始的第一阶段,第二个阶段,开始了第三阶段和实施阶段,包括三相四。
有一些建议和策略定义在研究中实施裁员和处理善后事宜的。亚伯拉罕(引狄克逊, 2000年)价值变化的重要性,而且他断言这种变化不应该是破坏性的组织。为了实施这一方法,以确保通信是与所有员工保持价值观和使命,愿景和方向的办法。有许多研究文献表明,沟通是这个过程成功的关键。 (瓦格纳, 1999年,年轻和布朗, 1998年,大卫和罗伯托, 2005年和库卡尼,ND ) 。
据大卫和罗伯托(2005) “管理者必须进行重大的工作在前面,以确保员工居然听艰难的消息,老问题的假设,并考虑新的工作方式” (第1-2页) 。相反,它也被推荐的诚信和尊严的员工在所有的时间,应该是该组织的议程。
它也建议跟进也很欣赏在这方面的调查和研究组织根据员工需要学习和移动。有许多瘦身的影响做评估的研究。 (库卡尼, ND年轻和布朗, 1998年,怀恩, 2003杜菲尔德, Kearin和伦纳德, 2007年和瓦格纳,1999年) 。关于这一主题的研究将帮助组织了解员工的意见,并帮助他们调整变化。
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