新西兰代写assignment|Renewable Energy

浏览: 日期:2020-06-10

Thermal Mass Renewable Energy in Building.


The reservoir of natural resources inherent in the earth's geological sphere is finite. Unlike other natural sustainable resources on earth, energy resources once excavated become depleted with time. What is more, the process of excavation is often destructive and wasteful, resulting in harmful effects on the environment. Often, experts are of the view that energy resource excavation and its uses tend to create more pollution and harmful than provide benefits to mankind such as carbon dioxide and monoxide emission from petroleum. Consequently, today experts realizing the implication of such harmful effects have successfully experimented and introduced the concept of renewable energy. These are energy sources from biomass applications; rock geothermal energy; hydrogen fuel cells; tidal, waves and air energy; and crop waste cellulose gasified to obtain energy for heating, electric and transportation application etc. Thus the use of renewable has grown markedly in the past decades in developed and under developed countries. In under developed countries the focus is on renewable energy to generate power for domestic and industrial uses. On the other hand developed countries in the recent years have experimented to generate renewable energy for the purpose of better and cleaner living (Ottinger and Williams 2002).

It is in this context that in the following section the researcher shall investigate thermal mass as a renewable energy resource for buildings. The premise is to analyze the various aspects of renewable energy, thermal mass energy in particular for building purposes and how it impacts the construction industry.


Building material today may comprise of stone, brick, and concrete or mixed material from slate, cement and limestone etc. These materials have been used by ancient civilizations but it is also common today with a difference. Today building construction industry has advanced significantly and concentrates on vernacular architectural design as well as in use of materials. These include the use of materials that would help to save energy since the world has come to realize financial and environmental effect of petroleum and hydroelectric power on the earth. Consequently, the majority of architects, contractors and engineers are concentrating on the inclusion of thermal mass renewable techniques to create energy efficient structures and buildings.

According to Catherine Slessor (2004) thermal mass is not a new phenomenon. It has been used in thick-walled buildings in hot and dry countries of the world. It has its roots from the concept of environmentally sustainable construction in under developed and developing countries. The main aim of thermal mass usage in buildings is to contain energy through thermally efficient and completely recyclable materials (Weston 2003). This practice is not only inherent in the use of material but also in architectural designing and engineering practices as well.

Thermal mass integration in the construction of buildings has in the past and until recently been based on the thermal environmental control systems. This system has been established with the view to suppress rather than expresses thermal mass usage. Core mechanisms for thermal mass thus have been fixed with shades, vertical ventilation shafts and the central plants usually setup in the basement or rooftop. The thermal environmental control systems thus have been based on the concept of hidden mechanisms retaining aesthetic objective (Bairds 2001).

In recent years however, the choice of sustainable energy resources have given rise to contemporary design that accommodate visible expression of thermal mass energy resources. As a result the price of efficiency does not necessarily impact the aesthetic sense. Adaptations of this nature have given rise to the visible massive ducts, draft-enhancing chimneys in the roof, and design features such as extension fins and windows to augment or capture renewable energy. The objective according to experts had been to create a building that is energy efficient as well as uses it to control the environment within the house.

Figure 1 Source: Passive Solar (2005)

For example one can observe thermal mass usage in the construction of air-conditioning with natural lightening and ventilation. Thermal mass is used for free cooling, while the vents are used for optimizing summer and winter climatic conditions by insulating and capturing solar heat (Duncan, 1995 qt. Bairds 2001). Others have come up with the idea of low-rise buildings with high ground coverage by carving holes into the plan to allow it to capture thermal energy and transfer it to thermal cells (Bairds 2001).

Other projects include the use of thermal mass in floors that facilitate energy for public buildings like atriums, departments or such individual blocks. Each of the blocks run on environmental control systems that achieve low-energy operating costs, minimum winter time internal design temperature while for the summertime the structure captures energy for fully covering energy requirement by restaurants, meeting rooms and computer rooms (Bairds 2001).

Thus it is evident that thermal mass as a source for renewable energy in building is expected to revolutionize construction concepts and techniques. For example the latest trend had been to utilize exposed walls and structured floors to ensure continuous supply and return of air and at the same time thermal mass energy for facilitating the occupants (Chiras 2002).

According to another expert Sebestyén (1998) thermal mass usage can also be used in constructing floors as well. For example materials must be gauged and studied for its thermal resistance before it could be used in flooring.  This technique serves the function of construction the base for the room as well as the mechanical device for cooling or heating internal temperatures as well. Others suggest that moisture and heat transport techniques can help transfer mass energy. Mass transfer is a critical part of the indoor construction that helps in limiting the environment from becoming too dry or too moist. Hence for any constructed building the use of thermal environmental control system should be based on the climatic condition of the area. In areas where the excessive moisture can foil internal atmosphere, it would be better to create extra ventilation apart from the windows and doors. The moist air can be used for renewable energy through a process called condensation (Sebestyén 1998).

Condensation in buildings falls under two forms, namely surface and within the enclosed structures. Both of these types of condensation occur where there is moist air. This can be captured and used for the benefit of the occupants. For countries like the UK for example where moist air has become a problem for the people, thermal mass renewable techniques help in not only eliminating moisture but also use it to benefit the occupants of buildings as well. Thermal bridges can be constructed to conserve energy as well as using building materials that would help in ventilating excess moisture that create pollutants in the indoor air. These environmental control measures which previously had created health and living problems may be benefited through renewable energy (Sebestyén 1998).

The popularity of thermal mass usage in constructing and building has proliferated so much that millions of homes today are being designed to capture free heat as well as heat from waste materials and such other renewable resources. The core elements that help promote this type of buildings include the use of construction materials that retain heat; components such as windows, interiors and flooring materials to capture energy; and designs that maximize energy released and captured such as sunny interiors; sun facing windows; ventilation shafts; floor plans and mechanisms that support these (Chiras 2002).

Yet despite the fact that thermal mass renewable energy have gained popularity and has been considered one way of capturing renewable energy, nevertheless it still faces considerable drawbacks creating a setback as a common and cheap way of constructing and sustaining energy resources. These include lack of public awareness, availability, costs and benefits of renewable technologies; lack of project managers and initiators; government agencies; trained workers; financial support; and research and development efforts etc. (Baird 2001). Furthermore by creating awareness and setting the standards of thermal mass usage in building high but at low cost would attract contractors to promote it for constructing cheap public or residential buildings for sustainable construction in the future.


From the above discussion the researcher discovers that renewable energy is a credible source of energy that needs to be integrated in modern day construction techniques for the benefits the consumers and also for building infrastructure of modern society. Renewable energy through thermal mass as discussed earlier could be integrated into walls, windows, floors, new structures, basement, or roofs of houses or buildings to capture air, water or solar energy and use it for consumption. This method of energy usage is much more convenient as well as expensive for the occupants. What is more it is compliant to the thermal environmental control systems model that is critical for sustaining the earth's natural resources. Mineral energy resources such as petroleum, coal and the like can no longer be considered indefinite as deposits are excavated beyond the rate of its renewable which is all the reason why we need to turn to renewable energy such as thermal mass to capture its benefits and to sustain the environment in which we live.


Baird, G. (2001) The Architectural Expression of Environmental Control Systems.  London: Spon Press.
Chiras, D. (Aug 2002) "Build a Solar Home and Let the Sunshine In" Mother Earth News. p 74+.
Heitor, C. S. (1997) Window design for thermal comfort in domestic buildings in southern Brazil, Open University (United Kingdom), AAT C606758.
Ottinger, R. L and Williams, R. (2002) "Renewable Energy Sources for Development"Environmental Law. Volume: 32. Issue: 2. p 331+. 
Sebestyén, G. (1998) Construction: Craft to Industry. London: E and FN Spon.
Slessor, C. (2004) "Earthly Powers" The Architectural Review. Volume: 215. Issue: 1283. p20
Weston, R. (2003) Materials, Form and Architecture, London: Laurence King, p22.

Additional Readings
Baker, N. and Steemers, K. (2000) Energy and Environment in Architecture E & FN Spon. 
Bennetts, R. (2003) Sustainability, an extract from "The Commercial Offices Handbook"Bennetts Associates. RIBA Publications.


的地球的地质球体的固有的水库的天然资源是有限的。不同于其他自然资源可持续的地球上的资源,能源资源,一旦挖掘出来,随着时间的推移变得枯竭。更重要的是,挖掘的过程中,通常是破坏性的和浪费的,从而导致对环境的有害影响。通常情况下,专家认为,能源资源的挖掘和它的用途往往创造更多的污染和危害比提供给人类的好处,如二氧化碳和一氧化碳排放量从石油。因此,今天的专家实现此种有害影响的含义已经试验成功,并引入可再生能源的概念。这些能源来自生物质能应用;岩石地热能,氢燃料电池,潮汐,海浪和空气能量和农作物废弃物的纤维素气化获取能源,用于采暖,电力和交通应用等因此,使用可再生的显着增长,在过去的几十年里,在发达和欠发达的国家。在不到发达国家的重点是可再生能源发电的家庭和工业用途。在另一方面,在近年来的发达国家已经尝试以产生更好和更清洁的生活为目的的可再生能源(奥廷格和Williams , 2002 ) 。
根据凯瑟琳Slessor ( 2004)热质量是不是一个新的现象。它已被用于在炎热和干燥的世界各国的厚壁建筑。它有它的根从环境下,发达国家和发展中国家的可持续建筑的概念。建筑物中使用热质量的主要目的是遏制能量通过热效率和的完全可回收材料( 2003年韦斯顿) 。这种做法不仅是固有的材料的使用,而且在建筑设计和工程实践。
热式质量整合在建筑物的建设在过去,直到最近是基于热环境控制系统。该系统已建立了抑制,而不是表示使用热质量。因此,热质量的核心机制色调,垂直通风井和中央的植物通常设置在地下室或屋顶已得到修复。热环境控制系统已根据隐藏的机制,保持审美目标( 2001年Bairds )的概念。
图1资料来源:被动式太阳能(2005 )
例如,人们可以观察到使用热质量建设与自然闪电和通风空调。用于自由冷却热质量,优化夏季和冬季的气候条件而通风口用于绝缘和捕捉太阳能热(邓肯, 1995年的qt 。 2001年Bairds ) 。其他人都与地面覆盖高低层建筑的想法通过计划允许它捕捉到热能,并将其传输热细胞( 2001年Bairds )的雕刻成孔。
其他项目包括用热质量,促进能源等公共建筑中庭,部门或个人块地板。每块上运行的环境控制系统,实现低能源运营成本,冬季的最低时间的内部设计温度,而夏季的结构捕捉的能量完全覆盖能源需求,餐厅,会议室和电脑室( 2001年Bairds ) 。
因此,显而易见的是,作为源的热质量可再生能源在建筑物预期彻底改变建筑的概念和技术。例如,最新的趋势是利用裸露的墙壁和结构性地板,以确保持续的供应和回流空气和在同一时间热质能促进居住者( 2002年Chiras ) 。
根据另一位专家Sebestyén的(1998)热质的使用,也可用于在构造地板。例如,材料必须加以衡量,并研究了它的热电阻之前,它可以被用来在地板。这种技术提供的建造工程的基本供室内使用,以及用于冷却或加热内部温度以及机械装置的功能。其他人则表明,水分和热量传输技术可以帮助传质能源。传质是在室内建设的一个重要组成部分,有助于限制变得过于干燥或过于潮湿的环境。因此,对于任何建筑热环境控制系统的使用,应根据该地区的气候条件。过多的水分可以烘托内部气氛的地方,它会更好,除了窗户和门来创建额外的通风。可用于潮湿的空气通过一个过程称为缩合( 1998年Sebestyén )的可再生能源。
凝结在建筑物属于两种形式,即表面的封闭结构内。这些类型的缩合发生有潮湿的空气。这可以被捕获,并用于住户的利益。例如在潮湿的空气中已经成为一个问题,为人民的国家,如英国,热质量的可再生能源技术不仅消除水分的帮助,但也可以使用它来造福建筑物的居住者。可以构造热桥,以节约能源以及使用建材,这将有助于在通风多余的水分,创造室内空气中的污染物。以前创建健康和生活问题,这些环境控制措施可能会受益通过再生能源( 1998年Sebestyén ) 。
使用热质量建设和建设的普及激增,以至于今天,数百万家庭正在设计捕捉热量以及废料和热等其他可再生资源。有利于促进这种类型的建筑物,包括核心要素保留热量的建筑材料的使用,如Windows的组件,内饰和地板材料中获取能量和释放的能量,并抓获如晴天内饰设计,最大限度地提高太阳的窗户;通风井;楼计划和机制,支持这些( 2002年Chiras ) 。
然而,尽管可再生能源热质量的事实,已经获得了普及,并一直被认为是捕捉可再生能源的一种方式,但它仍然面临着相当大的弊端,建设和维持能源资源作为一个普通而廉价的方式创建一个挫折。这些措施包括公众意识缺乏,可用性,可再生能源技术的成本和收益;缺乏项目经理和发起人,政府机构,训练有素的工人,财务支援,以及研究和开发工作等( 2001年贝尔德) 。此外,通过创造意识和设置使用热式质量建设高标准,但以较低的成本将吸引承包商来推动可持续建筑在未来兴建廉价的公共或住宅楼宇。
贝尔德, G. ( 2001 ),建筑环境控制系统的表达。伦敦: SPON出版社。
Chiras , D. ( 2002年8月) “建立一个家用太阳能,让阳光在”地球母亲新闻。第74页。
的Heitor , CS (1997)公开大学(英国) ,巴西南部AAT C606758在国内建筑热舒适性的橱窗设计。
奥廷格, R. L和威廉姆斯, R. (2002) “可再生能源发展的”环境法。体积: 32 。问题: 2 。第331页。
Sebestyén , G. (1998)工程:工艺产业。伦敦:E和FN SPON的。
Slessor , C. (2004) “尘世权力”建筑评论。体积: 215 。发行:1283 。 P20
韦斯顿, R. (2003)材料,形式和架构,伦敦:劳伦斯国王,P22 。
贝克, N.和Steemers , K. (2000)能源与环境建筑E& FN SPON的。
Bennetts说道, R. (2003)的可持续发展,摘录自“商业办事处手册”尼茨。英国皇家建筑师学会出版物。