This essay looks into the importance of training to innovation of an organization. The author believes training professionals have a leading role in innovation and change. firstly, the author have a review of literature on how the role of training professionals is identified in today’s businesses, to deliver innovation; secondly, the author discuss how training professionals approach the design and delivery of training and development programs with the theory of The Training Cycle; last but not least, the author selects two Australian organizations: ANZ bank and Westpac to discuss, compare and contrast their training mechanism for innovation.
2. The role of training professionals
In an organization, training professionals refers to those whose jobs were related to training such as trainers, training specialists, training administrators, training supervisors, training managers, training directors, and training consultants etc. the role of training professionals, as stated by Martyn Sloman (1999) is acting as a strategic facilitator and as a deliverer. He identified the role of the training professionals as developing and articulating the training strategy and plans and promoting the training culture as well as a supplier of training and manager of training activities. Through the writing of training strategies and policies, design and production, delivery, and evaluation of learning programs, Wilson, J.P. (1999) believes, the role of training professionals is not only to communicate and impact knowledge; but by using appropriate training methods, they can motivate, help people to learn, spark innovation and creativity and promote a hunger to learn. Nilson, C.D. (2003) hold the view that training professionals, especially the training manager needs to take on the task of facilitating employees’ ability to be creative and to help them learn to innovate as flexibility, learning and innovation are key ingredients of remaining employable in today’s corporate atmosphere of challenge and change. Other studies also provide strong evidence that training professionals can facilitate innovation in the organization by providing trainings. Turcotte (2002) found that innovation in products, services and processes, and implementation of new technologies or new software are positively associated with support of training provided by training professionals. Based on a review of a series of Canadian studies, Baldwin (1999) found out a positive linkage between innovation and training. He also emphasized that there are close relationship between innovation, skills and training, and the success of start-up firms. (Baldwin, 2000)
3. Training design and delivery
No matter a training is taught by internal trainers of the organization or outside venders, it is certain that the program is designed by following a special process, which is also known as the Training Cycle as indicated in Fig. 1. In fact, training design and delivery is only two stages of it. The training cycle starts long before the training program begins and continues after the program is completed. (Biech, 2005)How training professionals approach the design and delivery of training and development programs is based on the first 4 stages.
Fig.1 the Training Cycle
Stage 1: Analyse NeedsBefore designing and delivering a training program, it is of great importance to analyze and understand the specific needs and intended outcomes of the training. Training needs analysis is to review the learning and development demand of staffs, with consideration on skills, knowledge and behaviors needed by employees and how to develop them effectively. There are different approaches for training needs analyzing, for example, structured interviews or focus groups, questionnaires and so on. It is deepened on organizational factors such as size and structure. A correct and reliable training needs analysis is of great importance for it is the basis of the whole training program. (Biech, 2005)
Stage 2: Develop ObjectivesThe development of training objectives is based on the organizational need which discovered in above stage. It focuses on the intended outcome of the training. A good training objective should state clearly the performance (knowledge or skill) that is desired and hope to accomplish after the completion of the training. A clear objective setting can improve motivation; hence it is useful to make all trainees understand it clearly before training starts. (Biech, 2005)
Stage 3: Devise ProgramOnce the objective is determined, training professionals starts to design the program. They decide how they are going to accomplish the objectives and meet the needs developed in the previous stages. There are many things need to consider in this stage, such as: whether to design it or purchase from outside vender; who is the audience and what is the best techniques to train them; how to add innovation and creativity to the program; how to ensure all the objectives are accomplished etc. (Biech, 2005) Stage 4: Implementing Training This is a stage where training professionals conduct the training program. With lot of preparation in initial stages, there is no guarantee that the program will a completely success. (Biech, 2005) Therefore, some trainers will pilot a program with a group to collect feedbacks before the real training. A trainer is both a presenter and facilitators, which require both presentation and facilitation skills. (Nilson, 2003)ANZ Banks Founded in 1835, headquartered in Melbourne, Anz Banks is the fifth largest commercial bank in Australia and the largest bank in New Zealand. The total Asset of ANZ Banks reaches 335 billion AUD. It has 781 branches in Australia and 1265 offices all around the world. ANZ Banks pay a lot of attention on the training of employees and spark innovation during the trainings. It has invested a great deal of money to set up an on-line learning center to encourage all staffs to learn. Every employees of the company can use this on-line learning center to learn. This is a large investment program. In 2006, 50 million AUD has been invested in the on-line courses. There are rich and diversified courses in the online learning center, which includes both business courses e.g. retailing banking, financial services and life courses such as fishing, housekeeping and so on. There are optional courses and compulsory courses. Optional courses are those employees choose according to their interests and hobbies; compulsory courses are determined according to the position of employees and employees have to pass specific exams after the training. In 2006, there are 90000 optional courses and 30000 compulsory courses. (ANZ, 2011)Westpac Banking Corp.
Westpac Banking Corp. is with the longest history in Australia. it is established in 1817, and changes its name to Westpac Banking Corp in 1982. Westpac Banking Corp provides banking services for Australia, New Zealand and south Pacific regions and is the forth largest banking group in Australia. Its total asset exceeds 200 billion AUD. The company provides services for over 7.5 million clients its branches al over pacific region and major financial center in the world. Westpac Banking Corp. is dedicated to establish a learning organization. Its training focus on five aspects: a. systematic thinking capacity; b. imagination and proactivity; c. thinking model; d. ability to grasp reality; d. team learning capacity. The Corp. emphasizes on the corporate culture building and spares no effort to cultivate their core vale “integrity, cooperation and efficiency. (Westpac, 2011)
Comparison and contrast
As discussed above, both ANZ and Westpac has valued employee innovation and take a series of measures to training for innovation. There is one difference in their technique: ANZ tries to spark innovation by introducing new training techniques – the on-line learning center. With the support of high-technology, employees are able to get training any time and any where. There is no evidence that Westpac is adopting new technique in employee training. Westpac approaches to training innovation with emphasis on the software. The trainings are tailored to help employee grasp innovative and creative thinking and improve their innovation capacity. Its training are divided into five aspects, which are all oriented in activate innovative and creative thinking of the employees.
There is similarity for both approaches. That is though training; both organizations are aimed to create a learning organization atmosphere and environment that encourages innovation, for example, ANZ’s high investment in employee training and learning; Westpac’s efforts to create a learning organization.
Due to the dynamic changes in business employment, employee workforce and organization structure, innovation and change is vital factor for organizations to survive and develop in the sever competition. This essay looks into the issue that how training and training professionals play their role in innovation with cases study of two Australian banks’ training mechanism: ANZ Banks and Westpac Banking Corp. based on the above discussion, the author believes training professional is not only a training delivery but also a facilitator. It is have a leading role in innovation and changes.
Baldwin, J. R. (2000). Innovation, training and success. Ottawa, Canada: Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
Biech, E., (2005). Training for dummies. NY: For Dummies.
Nilson, C. D., (2003). How to manage training: a guide to design and delivery for high performance. NY: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
在组织中，培训的专业人士，是指那些工作相关的培训，如培训，培训专家，培训管理员，培训主管，培训经理，培训主管，培训顾问等培训专业人才的作用，正如马丁·斯洛曼（ 1999年）作为一个战略的推动者和作为一个拯救者。他确定的培训专业人才的作用，发展和阐明了培训的战略和计划，促进培训文化以及供应商的培训和经理的培训活动。通过培训战略和政策，设计，生产，交付和评估学习计划的书写，威尔逊， JP （1999）认为，培训专业人员的作用不仅是沟通和影响知识，但通过适当的培训方法，他们可以激励，帮助人们学习，激发创新和创造力，促进饥饿学习。尼尔森，C.D. （2003年）举行，专业人员培训，尤其是培训经理需要以促进员工的能力来是创意和帮助他们学习创新作为灵活性，学习和创新是保持就业的关键成分在今天的企业的任务的视图挑战和变革的气氛。其他的研究也提供了强有力的证据，培训专业人员可以在组织中促进创新，提供培训。特科特（2002）发现，在产品，服务和流程的创新，并实施新技术或新软件具有正相关专业人员培训提供的培训与支持。根据加拿大研究了一系列的审查，鲍德温（1999）发现，积极的创新和培训之间的联系。他还强调，创新，技能培训，创业公司的成功之间也有密切的关系。 （鲍德温， 2000年）
不管一个培训教组织的内部培训或境外商贩，可以肯定的是，该计划的目的是通过一个特殊的过程，这也被称为训练周期，如图三所示。 1。事实上，培训的设计和交付是只有两个阶段。培训课程开始之前，计划完成后继续训练周期开始长。 （ Biech ，2005年） ，培训专业人员如何接近培训和发展计划的设计和交付基于第4阶段。
第1阶段：分析的设计NeedsBefore和提供培训计划，这是非常重要的分析和理解培训的具体需求和预期结果。培训需求分析是审查人员的学习和发展需求，考虑技能的员工，如何有效开发他们所需要的知识和行为。有不同的方法进行培训需求分析，例如，结构性访谈或焦点小组，问卷调查等等。加深对组织的规模和结构等因素。正确的和可靠的培训需求分析是非常重要的，因为它是整个培训计划的基础。 （ Biech ，2005年）
第2阶段：开发培养目标ObjectivesThe发展组织需求的基础上，发现在上述阶段。它着重于培训的预期结果。一个良好的训练目标应说明清楚的表现（知识或技能） ，然后希望来完成，完成后的训练。明确的目标设定可以提高动力，因此它是有益的，使所有学员了解清楚才开始训练。 （ Biech ，2005年）
第3阶段：设计ProgramOnce目标是确定，培训专业人员开始设计程序。他们决定他们是如何去实现的目标和满足发展的需求在前面的阶段。有很多事情需要考虑在这个阶段，如：是否从外部协力厂商设计或购买，谁是观众，什么是最好的技术，训练他们如何添加程序创新和创造力，如何确保所有的目标是多才多艺等（ Biech ，2005年）的第4阶段：实施培训，这是一个阶段，培训专业人员进行培训计划。很多准备在初始阶段，有没有保证，该计划将完全成功。 （ Biech ，2005），因此，一些培训试点方案与一组，以收集反馈才真正的训练。一个教练既是一个主持人和推动者，这需要演示和便利技能。 ANZ银行（尼尔森，2003年）成立于1835年，总部设在墨尔本，ANZ银行的第五大商业银行在澳大利亚和新西兰最大的银行。 ANZ银行的总资产达到3,350亿澳元。它在澳大利亚有781家分行和1265世界各地的办事处。 ANZ银行支付了大量的关注，对员工的培训，并在培训期间的创新火花。已经投入了大量的资金，成立了一个网上学习中心，鼓励全体员工学习。每个公司的员工可以使用这个在线学习中心学习。这是一个庞大的投资计划。 2006年，已完成投资5000万澳元，在上线的课程。在网上学习中心，有丰富多样的课程，其中包括商务课程，如零售银行，金融服务和生命如钓鱼，家政等课程。有选修课和必修课。选修课是这些员工选择根据自己的兴趣和爱好;必修课程是根据员工和员工的位置，必须通过具体的培训后考试。在2006年，有90000选修课和30000必修课。 （ 2011）澳新银行（ANZ），西太平洋银行公司
西太平洋银行是澳大利亚历史最悠久的。它成立于1817年，并于1982年更名为西太平洋银行公司。西太平洋银行公司提供银行服务，为澳大利亚，新西兰和南太平洋地区，是澳大利亚第四大银行集团。其总资产超过200亿澳元。公司为超过750万客户提供服务，其分支机构人对亚太地区和世界的主要金融中心。西太平洋银行公司是专门为建立学习型组织。其培训重点抓好五个方面：一。系统思维能力; B。想象力和积极性; C。思维模式; 。把握现实的能力;团队学习能力。公司注重企业文化建设，不遗余力，培养自己的核心淡水河谷以“诚信，合作和效率。 （西太平洋银行， 2011年）
如上所述，澳新银行和西太平洋银行重视员工创新，并采取了一系列的措施，创新培训。在他们的技术有一个区别：澳新银行试图通过引入新的训练技术创新火花 - 在线学习中心。随着高科技的支持下，员工能够得到培训，任何时间和任何地方。有没有证据表明，西太平洋银行是采用新技术，在员工培训。西太平洋银行培训创新方法，强调软件。量身定制的培训，帮助员工掌握创新性和创造性的思维，提高他们的创新能力。其培训分为五个方面，这是面向所有在激活员工的创新性和创造性的思维。
鲍德温，J.R. （2000） 。创新，培训和成功。加拿大渥太华：加拿大统计局，分析研究科。
Biech ，E. （2005） 。训练假人。 NY ：傻瓜。
尼尔森， C. D. （2003） 。如何管理培训指导，以高性能的设计和交付。纽约： ： AMACOM股息美国MGMT协会。