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Computer-aided drug design (ComputerAidedDrugDesign, CADD) is a branch of pharmaceutical chemistry, the rapid development of the technology and extensive application of pharmaceutical scientists to become one of the techniques must be mastered. Computer-aided drug design course is one of medicinal chemistry courses, which is characterized by highly specialized, involving content, method and application software updates quickly; course content and more involved in biological macromolecules and small organic molecules in three-dimensional structure, and how The content vivid presented to the process of teaching students to solve problems. In order to fully mobilize the initiative of students, improve student interest, students analyze problems and problem-solving skills, the author in the process of introduction of CADD teaching a variety of modern educational technology and teaching methods, and constantly promote CADD teaching innovation.
This paper focuses on computer-aided drug design of teaching in the integrated application of multimedia, molecular modeling software, screen recording software, DVD video and other modern educational technology experience are introduced, and in the process of teaching reform CADD Some experiences are summarized.
A computer-aided drug design Teaching Reform
1. A variety of modern educational technology applications 
Author of the College of Pharmacy since 2001 and Accelerated Degree in undergraduate students opened CADD long schooling curriculum, the teaching model of development as other courses, experienced a process from traditional to modern. Course early adopters "chalk wall chart" teaching mode, the traditional blackboard blackboard-based, complex content expressed with flip chart. After that came the slide projector, some molecular graphics can show slide projector, so that students have a relative molecular graphics image understanding. 9O late to the last century, as computer software in the teaching process MicrosoftOfifcePowerPoint are commonly used, CADD course patterns into the computer multimedia age. Teaching, teachers can easily courseware content is displayed on a large screen in the classroom to be explained. The advantage is that some of the molecular graphics images can compare the contents of the expression, but the disadvantage is that picture is still "dead" form, can not show small molecules of biological macromolecules and drug interactions dynamic process, not enough to vividly reflect the Computer-Aided Drug design features. To solve this problem, and to fully exploit the potential of modern educational technology, the author CADD course teaching reform on teaching methods.
Modern educational technology in addition to commonly used computers, multimedia and network technology, also includes cameras, DVD / VCD machines, and other AV (Audio and video in general) equipment. The author in the classroom teaching process, and continue to explore the modern educational technology used in computer-aided drug design right course ways to bring new technologies into play to stimulate student interest, improve teaching effectiveness role. I tap the potential of modern educational technology specific practices include the following aspects:
(1) Application PyMol software graphically express PyMol molecular dynamics is used to display and analyze a three-dimensional molecular structure of the program, prepared by the WarrenLyfordDeLano and was DeLanoScientificLLC software companies commercialization. Application of this software, you can demonstrate to students build three-dimensional structure of small molecules as well as with sticks, streamers and other three-dimensional display of molecular structures. In addition PyMol three-dimensional structure of the protein can also be edited and modified, to study protein and small molecule interactions in the process, and in the form of three-dimensional graphics display dynamic process of molecular interactions, so that the original abstract teaching content to be presented in a very intuitive student before. The author in the course of the various chapters are interspersed with Pymol software to simulate three-dimensional structure of molecular image colorful, vivid structure. As most of the students are the first contact with the molecular modeling software, such rich and vivid graphics have a strong novelty, stimulate student interest in the course of the powerful. Therefore, the introduction of Pymol software, play in the teaching process to stimulate a change in teaching, maintaining students' attention with good results
(2) make full use of network resources in underdeveloped network era, CADD course content has some limitations - only to introduce the theory-based, relatively abstract and boring, is not conducive to develop students' practical skills and problem-solving skills . With the rapid development of network technology and network resources, enrich, CADD teaching both in time and space has been greatly expanded. In the course content, the author introduces a large number of students and computer-aided drug design related websites resources, including various web pages, databases, and computer simulation software; allows students to complete homework in the form of use of these resources, and expanding their own classroom knowledge, thus bringing the classroom teaching students in the future continue to publish the work, so that students' learning ability and quality improved significantly compared to earlier. Later investigations showed that students in this part of the content is very interesting.
(3) vivid 12.0 software applications CADD Accelerated Degree course is the six-year pharmacy student opened an elective course, each student based on different number as many as hundreds elective , ranging from six 70 people. Due to space constraints and teachers who can not make every student into the workstation for field operations. In order to make students understand the basic situation of the workstation, the author introduced with a video camera to record hospital workstation video files and edit them with vivid 12.0 software, coupled with titles and music, made more interesting from a DVD video instruction sheet to the students in the class play. After the students watched, the orientation of the workstation and the hardware at a glance. There are some students to watch later, with interest asked to participate in the workstation's research work.
(4) DiscoveryStudio2.5 CamtasiaSudio6.0 molecular modeling software and screen recording software, try a combination of computer-aided drug design is a very practical subject, the best mode of delivery should be carried out simultaneously in theory courses open experimental course so that students have access to computer-aided drug design workstation laboratory for hands. However, different from common laboratory laboratory and computing, require special space, require a lot of computer, but requires expensive drug design software. By space and funding constraints, often built in the short term is difficult to meet the requirements of the laboratory. In addition to the teachers, only after systematic training and on the basis of long-term practice have the ability to bring this particular experiment. How to make a large number of students to teachers published in the actual operation down to the station, has been troubled by the problem of teaching everyone. Limited funds in order to solve this problem under the condition that the whole class can quickly understand the function and operation of the software, the author in a variety of modern teaching methods to do a lot of trial and error, eventually taking the DiscoveryStudio
2.5 molecular modeling software and CamtasiaSudio6.0 screen recording software combines the methods used. Discoveyrstudio2.5 (abbreviated DS) software is based on Win-dows/Linux systems and computational molecular modeling software platform, a lot of functions, you can perform most calculations of classroom teaching content, but the operation is relatively complicated. As students in number, space and time are limited, even if the students were divided into groups of teachers, demonstrate and explain over and over again to do is unrealistic. By the revelation of online education, I take a screen recording software will operate on teachers Recorded Pc machine made sheet approach to teaching experimental teaching. The author has tried a variety of screen recording software, the final selection function better, recording the results are satisfactory for Camtasiasudio6.0 software. In a special studio, teachers in their own applications on the PC software demonstrations of teaching content Discoveyrstudio2.5 operation, simultaneous use Camtasiasudio6.0 screen recording software functionality, all the steps and explain the contents are clearly recorded and . After re-recording of these good video file processing, made an experiment with different themes teaching film, got the classroom to the students playing. This intuitive presentation, not only saves lab space and asked to reduce unnecessary duplication of work of teachers, students easily accept and understand, learn relaxed and happy. Students in the later survey indicated very interested in this part of the content, impressive. Its effect is described as "easy to teach, learn to be enjoyable."
In the course of practice I deeply appreciate the flexible use of modern teaching methods, to fully exploit its potential, can provide great convenience for teaching work. Not only can stimulate students' interest in learning, but also lack of qualified teachers and help solve the problem of inadequate laboratory equipment, teaching has improved significantly. Teachers through the network, audio, video and other technical means to introduce the teaching process, the teaching content including moving into a variety of audio-visual materials, so that the image of the teaching content can be more and more realistic way to teach students. In this way than the traditional "blackboard + textbook" The teaching method is more welcomed by the students, while teaching students the content of memory is also more profound.
Confucius said: "Those who know not as good, good and those who not the music." Educational scholars believe that: "In the teaching of creation of a good learning environment, is to stimulate and arouse students' learning motivation, learning beneficial interest means, once aroused, the students will have to learn a powerful force within the trend, take the initiative to explore and learn." . The ultimate goal of education is to "teach him to fish", so the teachers, the students in the classroom inspire positive thinking and active learning is a very important job. The application of modern educational technology, students can acquire knowledge published during active observation, thinking and imagination to guide students in the learning process analysis of the phenomenon, mining nature, and ultimately solve the problem, these processes can deepen students' knowledge of memory. Modern educational technology by students to produce a variety of sensory stimuli, effectively stimulate students 'interest in learning so relaxed classroom atmosphere is conducive to improving the quality of teaching, is conducive to the development of students' thinking, to improve the quality of students
Second, traditional education and the organic integration of modern educational technology
"Teaching progress is to continue to grasp the many teaching models and constantly improve the ability of effective use of these models." The author conducting CADD teaching reform process, deeply feels the need to modern education technology and traditional teaching methods organically combine classroom instruction in order to obtain the best results. To this end, the author conducted a three reforms.
1. Update textbooks
Computer-aided drug design disciplines rapid technological development, content and software updates and fast turnaround, which makes its course there is a prominent problem that can not keep updating textbooks disciplines. To meet this challenge, the author adopted the practice of teaching materials annually updated, before the commencement of each year are necessary for the supplementary teaching materials, supplementary materials for students to copy material. Accordingly, every year have to adjust the teaching content as much as possible the progress of integration into new disciplines to the teaching content, ensuring that students in class access to the latest knowledge.
2. Reform of teaching methods
Teaching process, how to make students in learning to play the main role is an important issue. Teachers in teaching students should give full play to the initiative, to stimulate students' participation in learning activities to achieve the interaction between teachers and students. Problem-BasedLearning (PBL) pedagogy is currently the world's popular problem-oriented teaching methods, is a student-centered education. Practice has proved that, PBL teaching can be a good mobilize the enthusiasm of students, but there must be more to complete the teacher and the students with questions to guide the learning process, students also need to put a lot of effort to check and be prepared to discuss the contents of the documents. To this end, the author in CADD drawing of PBL teaching, and its improved design in each class are some of the practical problems and drug design, and guide students to actively discuss, inspire students thinking, so that students from indoctrination type of learning into a positive and active learning. And teachers in the teaching practice and flexible, rational use of modern educational technology, mobilize the enthusiasm of students, teaching reform inputs together, so that teaching effectiveness to obtain greatly improved. 3. Innovative testing methods
In order to cultivate students' comprehensive quality and innovation, in the assessment of the way the author did not take the traditional closed book examination methods, instead of using a flexible and diverse forms. Student achievement (percentile) consists of the following components: a final open-book exam (50%) and the usual practice results-based quiz scores (20%), coupled with record attendance experimental class attendance of the basic conditions (20%), and usually actively participate in class discussions class classroom performance points (10%), that is, the students final course score. This will not only reduce the burden on students, but also to promote the students to analyze problems and problem-solving capabilities, to promote active learning ideas throughout the entire teaching process, rather than just rote end of the semester, but also help students raise into the habit of active learning, help students improve the overall quality
Third, the application of modern educational technology requires teachers to learn
At present, schools generally equipped with more modern teaching equipment, but with modern teaching equipment, does not mean they can play the advantages of modern educational techniques. The majority of teachers also need to learn and study of modern educational theory, make full use of modern educational technology. "Teachers need to keep up with the development of the current theory and research, and understand these developments on the significance of classroom teaching practice."
With the development of society and the progress of science, and everyone facing lifelong education. Teachers as an educational pioneer, the first to update their knowledge Updated and modern educational technology learners, users and communicators; to improve the quality of teaching, to stimulate students' interest in learning, teachers must first raise interest in learning; want to cultivate their sense of innovation In the process of teaching and innovation continue to try to fully learn and use of modern educational technology. To this end, the author through a variety of channels to learn and master the modern educational technology. First, actively participate in school and social organizations of the various teaching technology training courses, keeping pace peers, not backward; also take advantage of summer vacation and other spare time, research and development of a variety of software to use, apply their knowledge in a timely manner in the classroom applications and presentations. And application of these technologies in the learning process of the method, the author realized the unlimited fun.
At the same time, the teacher is also a beneficiary of modern educational technology. Modern educational technology for teachers teaching provides an ideal platform to realize the diversification of teaching resources, set P text, animation, molecular graphics, molecular modeling and DVD videos in various manifestations in one, so teaching content richer and more intuitive will help students access to knowledge and memory, make the teaching content becomes specific and vivid, so the past is difficult to express the content easy to show. The emergence of modern educational technology for teachers to display their talent to provide a new opportunity. Teachers to new technologies applied to teaching and classroom organization, you will feel very confident and convenience. If you do not seize this opportunity, it will become the laggards lead times.
Fourth, the application of modern educational technology evaluation of the effectiveness
In order to listen to the students' recommendations to better promote CADD teaching reform, the author in 2009 CADD elective courses the students launched a questionnaire. Elective students 60 year, 56 people participated in answer. Which related to the content of this article statistical and analytical results are as follows:#p
1. Students' interest
For the purpose of elective courses CADD, 13 people (23.2%) because of subject content and student research projects relating to or want to go in this direction after graduation; while as many as 36 people (64.3%) is just a sense of interest, in order to learn some of the pharmacy-related knowledge. Description is to promote students' interest in learning an important factor for active learning.
2. Modern teaching techniques to help students achieve the desired learning outcomes
Whether the expected learning outcomes for a total of 45 (80.3%) considered essential to achieve fully achieved and that indefinable 10 people (17.9%). Learning by the students affirmed.
3. Computer-aided drug design experiment teaching suggestions
There were 44 (78.6%) would like to open a real experimental class, the students themselves-on practice; 5 (8.9%) do not want to open the experimental class, but I hope to live to see the teacher workstation demonstration; 18 ( 32.1%) suggested a number of other experimental methods and then recording the content to increase simulation class hours, reducing the theory class hours; does not talk about theory courses a student in favor of the abolition experimental courses link. The above data suggest that most of the students still want to develop their practical ability to adapt to future requirements of social development.
4. Interest on the part of the teaching process
Choose theory courses in receptor-based drug design approach 28 people (50.0%); choice theory courses in ligand-based drug design approach 22 people (39.3%); choice theory courses in bioinformatics content 19 people (33.9%). 28 people (50.0%) expressed described various software and more interested in a variety of sites, indicating that students want to use the network resources are constantly expanding their knowledge. With regard to the content of the video teaching, there were 12 (21.4%) of the author interested in teaching films homemade DVD while 25 (44.6%) suggested that the relevant sections of the DVD movie to add more content. 25 people (44.6%) interest in the experimental teaching films, students also raised, looked deep impression on the actual operation, hoping the more the better, and suggested that teachers download software methods. There are 8 people (14.3%) made experimental teaching film content is not rich, should any additional experimental content. 42 people
(75.0%) reported feeling screen software with Camtasiasudio6.0 recording good results.
The above data illustrate the students welcome the use of modern educational technology, and certainly it brings fun and learning teaching effect, indicating the author's teaching reform a success.
除了常用的计算机,多媒体和网络技术,现代教育技术还包括摄像机,DVD / VCD机,与其他AV设备(一般的音频和视频)。笔者在课堂教学过程中,继续探索现代教育技术应用于计算机辅助药物设计合适的课程方式带来了新的技术发挥,激发学生的兴趣,提高教学效果的作用。我挖掘潜在的现代教育技术的具体做法包括以下几个方面:
(2)充分利用网络资源,在经济欠发达的网络时代,计算机辅助药物设计的课程内容有一定的局限性 - 只介绍理论为基础的,比较抽象和枯燥,不利于培养学生的实践能力和解决问题的能力。随着国民经济的快速发展,网络技术和网络资源,充实,CADD教学在时间和空间上都已经大大扩展。在课程内容,作者介绍了大量的学生和计算机辅助药物设计相关的网站资源,包括各种网页,数据库和计算机仿真软件,让学生完成家庭作业的形式使用这些资源,扩大自己的课堂知识,从而使课堂教学的学生在未来继续发布工​​作,使学生的学习能力和质量显著改善,相比之下,早先的。后来的调查表明,学生在这部分的内容是非常有趣的。
(4)DiscoveryStudio2.5 CamtasiaSudio6.0分子建模软件和屏幕录像软件,尝试相结合的计算机辅助药物设计是一个实践性很强的学科,交付的最佳模式应同时进行理论课程开设实验课程,让学生有机会计算机辅助药物设计工作站实验室手中。然而,不同于常用的实验室实验和计算,需要特殊的空间,需要大量的计算机,但需要昂贵的药物设计软件。通过空间和资金的限制,往往是建立在短期内是难以满足要求的实验室。除了教师外,只有经过系统的培训和长期实践的基础上,有能力把这个特殊的实验。如何使大量的学生,教师发表在实际操作下来到车站,教导各人的问题,一直是困扰。资金有限,为了解决这个问题的条件下,,全班可以快速了解该软件的功能和操作,笔者在各种现代化教学手段,做了很多的试验和错误,最终以DiscoveryStudio
2.5分子建模软件和CamtasiaSudio6.0的屏幕录制软件结合使用的方法。 Discoveyrstudio2.5(简称DS)软件的Win-dows/Linux系统和计算分子建模软件平台,很多功能的基础上,你可以执行大多数计算的课堂教学内容,但操作比较复杂。由于学生的数量,空间和时间是有限的,即使学生被分为教师组,演示和讲解一遍又一遍做是不现实的。通过网络教育的启示,我拿一个屏幕录制软件将操作记录的PC机负债表债务法,教学实验教学的教师。笔者曾尝试过多种屏幕录制软件,最终选择功能更好的,记录的结果是令人满意的Camtasiasudio6.0软件。在一个特殊的工作室,教师在自己的应用在PC软件的教学内容Discoveyrstudio2.5操作的示威,同时使用Camtasiasudio6.0的屏幕录制软件的功能,所有的步骤和讲解的内容有明确记录。经过重新录制好的视频文件处理这些不同主题的教学片,做了一个实验,得到了教室的学生玩。这种直观的演示,不仅节省了实验室空间和要求,以减少不必要的重复工作的教师,学生易于接受和理解,学习轻松愉快。在后来的调查表明学生在这部分的内容很感兴趣,令人印象深刻。其效果被形容为“易教,学习是愉快的。”
孔子说:“谁不知道为好,好,谁不是音乐。”教育学者认为:“在教学中创造一个良好的学习环境,是激发和调动学生的学习动机,学习实益权益的手段,一度引起,学生将要学习的趋势内的强大力量,采取积极探索和学习。“ 。教育的最终目标是“授之以渔”,使教师,学生在课堂上激发积极思考和主动学习是一个非常重要的工作。现代教育技术的应用,学生可以学到知​​识发表在积极观察,思维和想象,引导学生在学习过程中的现象,挖掘本质,并最终解决问题的分析,这些过程可以深化学生的知识记忆。现代教育技术学生产生各种感官刺激,有效地学习如此宽松的课堂气氛,激发学生的兴趣,有利于提高教学质量,有利于发展学生的思维,提高学生的素质
教学过程中,如何让学生在学习中发挥主要作用,是一个重要的问题。教师在教导学生要充分发挥主观能动性,激发学生参与学习活动,以实现教师与学生之间的互动。问题BasedLearning的教学法(PBL)是目前世界上流行的以问题为导向的教学方法,是一种以学生为中心的教育。实践已经证明,PBL教学可以很好地调动学生的积极性,但必须有更长时间才能完成的问题,引导学习过程中的老师和学生,学生还需要投入了大量的精力去检查和准备讨论的内容的文件。为此,笔者在计算机辅助药物设计图纸PBL教学,其改进的设计在每个类中的一些实际问题和药物设计,引导学生积极讨论,启发学生的思维,让学生从灌​​输式学习纳入积极,主动的学习。教师在教学实践中,灵活,合理运用现代教育技术,调动学生的积极性,教学改革投入,使教学效果得到很大的提高。 3。创新的测试方法
为了培养学生的综合素质和创新,在评估的方式,笔者没有采取传统的闭卷考试方法,而不是采用灵活多样的形式。学生成绩(百分)由以下几部分组成:最后的开卷考试(50%)和平时的实践成果为基础的测验分数(20%),加上出席记录实验班考勤的基本条件(20%) ,平时积极参与课堂讨论课课堂表现分(10%),也就是说,最终录取分数线的学生。这不仅会降低学生的负担,也促进了学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,促进学生主动学习的理念贯穿于整个教学过程,而不仅仅是死记硬背学期结束的时候,也有利于学生提高到主动学习的习惯,帮助学生提高整体素质
目前,学校普遍配备更现代化的教学设备,但拥有现代化的教学设备,这并不意味着他们可以发挥现代教育技术的优势。还需要广大教师的现代教育理论的学习和研究,充分利用现代教育技术。 “教师需要跟上当前的理论和研究的发展,并了解这些事态发展对课堂教学实践的意义。”
有44个(78.6%)想开一个真正的实验课,学生自己实践; 5(8.9%),不想打开实验班,但我希望能活到看到老师工作站示范; 18 (32.1%)提出了​​一些其他的实验方法,然后录制的内容,以增加模拟学时,减少理论课时,不谈理论课程的学生赞成取消实验课程的链接。上述数据表明,大部分学生还是要培养自己的动手能力,以适应未来社会发展要求。
选择受体为基础的药物设计方法的理论课中28人(50.0%);选择理论课程,在配体为基础的药物设计方法,22人(39.3%);生物信息学内容的19人(33.9%)选择理论课程。 28人(50.0%)表示各种软件,并在各种网站更感兴趣,学生要使用网络资源,不断扩大自己的知识。的视频教学内容方面,有12(21.4%),笔者在自制的DVD教学片,而25(44.6%)认为,有关章节的DVD电影添加更多的内容感兴趣。在实际操作中,25人(44.6%)在实验教学片的兴趣,学生也提出了,看着深刻的印象,希望更多更好的,建议教师下载软件的方法。有8人(14.3%),实验教学影片内容并不丰富,任何额外的实验内容。 42人