1, Company Introduction
现在谷歌是最常用的搜索引擎，在全球拥有超过60％国家有创造搜索引擎的需求。Nowadays Google is the most used search engine in the world with over 60% of the world requests made on search engines. Google is also a company providing a large range of services. His web browser-Chrome makes it now compete with firms such as Microsoft. Some examples of Google services: mails, videos hosting, blogs, companies ads, maps, pictures hosting, websites analytics.During the last 4 semesters Google generated nearly 30 billions dollars of revenue with a net profit of 4,85 billion dollars. 同期相比，微软收入60亿美元，净利润为17亿。如今，谷歌的市值估计为2420亿美元。As a comparison for the same period Microsoft got 60 billions dollars and a net profit of 17,6 billions. The value of Google is nowadays estimated to 242 billion dollars.在高科技领域，只有三家公司有更好的报价：微软，IBM和苹果。 In the High-Tech sector only three companies have a better quotation: Microsoft, IBM and Apple. Google is physically present in 43 countries around the world with 68 offices: To understand how this company could have been so successful globally let's study his globalization steps during the last decade.
谷歌的全球性扩张2,Google’s global expansion
In 1996 a 24 year-old PhD student called Larry Page studying at the University of Stanford was looking for a theme for his thesis. Encouraged by his supervisor he studied the following topic “exploring the mathematical properties of the World Wide Web” working in collaboration with another student called Sergey Brin. To make it simple, it is from this work and collaboration that will came up “Google Inc”(officially created in September the 7th 1998). Two months later Google is already included in the Top 100 of world websites of PC magazine. Even if Google is formerly a web based application in English it is a worldwide service available on the Internet for all. As his creator(Larry Page) said “Google's search engine has always had strong global appeal,quot”. Here is a list of Google abroad activities. Year 1999: first engineer employee hired. Year 2000: 谷歌在几种语言中提供了的接口：法语，德语，意大利语，瑞典语，芬兰语，西班牙语，葡萄牙语，荷兰语，挪威语，丹麦语，汉语，日语和韩语。：Google provides an interface in several languages: French, German, Italian, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Chinese, Japanese and Korean. Year 2001: Google is now available in 26 languages and open his first global office, in Tokyo. A partnership with Universo Online (UOL)(the largest online service and Internet provider in Latin America) makes Google the major search service for millions of Latin Americans .Google first global office is set up in Tokyo in 2001. Year 2002: Google is available in 72 languages, partnership with AOL and first office in Australia in Sidney. Year 2003: several national acquisitions to extend Google services which at the end extend as well world services abroad of Google, for example the blog services “Blogger”. Dublin became the first location for Google's regional operations outside the U.S. Year 2004: more than 100 Google domain names are available. Google opens new engineering offices in Bangalore and Hyderabad in India. R&D center opened in Tokyo. Year 2005: the famous Google Maps application is released for Europe. New R&D center opens this time in China. First offices in Mexico and Argentina. Year 2006: several other acquisitions to extend their services with translation in several languages. Year 2007: Partnership with China Mobile, the world's largest mobile Telecommunication carrier, to provide mobile and Internet search services in China. Sign partnerships to give free access to Google Apps for Education to 70,000 university students in Kenya and Rwanda. Year 2008: Series of acquisitions and translations of other Google services. As we just saw in ten years Google developed a lot of Global marketing structures from simple offices to R&D centers to complex partnerships.谷歌收购了多家公司（超过50家）收购的目的在于扩张谷歌的服务范围，然后翻译以便在全球出口。 I did not mention it but Google acquired several companies(more than 50). The purpose of these acquisitions was to extend their range of services which are then translated in order to be globally exportable. Google seems to prefer the partnership(the company keep her brand but use Google, the best example is AOL).
谷歌作为搜索引擎闻名于世界3,Google's position in the world as a search engine
In order to introduce better Google's strategy abroad we should have a close look at Google's situation today. I made a map by analyzing results coming from Alexa Web (data center of the most visited websites in the world). The concept of this map is the following ,I put in evidence by one different color the leading search engine in each country. As I wrote previously Google is the most used search engine in the world with around 60% of the world requests. We could think then quickly that Google is used in majority by most countries around the world. I however have strong beliefs that the use of Search engines is not linked to rationality(better technology is winning), but in fact is driven by cultures. As we can see there are not many search engines in the world. Moreover three of them are in a very fragile situation: Microsoft, Seznam and Leit.is. As you can see Google has almost an entire control on the Americas(we saw previously that Google made a very intelligent partnership with the Latin America leader) except on the Caribbean area(too many small countries, too isolated. According to World Stats this area does not represent a lot of users. In Africa, Internet is not very developed in each of these countries, it is then hard to attribute a search engine leader. In fact only Nigeria seems to be a problem for Google in Africa. In Middle East I would say that the same problem which occurs with Iran. And then what I think is that the most interesting part is the Asian Wall which is composed of several different competitors and reasons why they are better implemented: better competitor's strategy(Yahoo), national security(Baidu in China), boycott of American services? (Mail.ru in Russia and ex-sovietik regions), foreigner search engine do not fit with Korean way of searching the information(Naver in South Korea). Even if Internet and technology made easier the exportation of products and services abroad it does not mean that it can be automatically made. In order to be world used Google will have far more to do than being the best service
全球市场营销4, Global Marketing
To analyze the global marketing concept which is the following: Classification of an Global company by qualitative features(EPRG); Local modifications;Types of globalization;Motivation of globalization;Company globalization;Areas of globalization; Crucial drivers of globalization.
Classification of an Global company by qualitative features(EPRG) I would qualify Google as a Geocentric company(the same service for all the world). There are however some slight modifications made to their service which could make one think that Google is acting as well as a Regiocentric company, at least on some marketing aspects. The reason which drove me to this conclusion is that Google managers are recruited from all over the world and the power is centralized in the United States. As said in Google's presentation they opened in 2003 in Dublin ，a location for regional operations outside the U.S. It has been designed to serve Google customers across multiple time zones and languages spanning Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Taking in account that Europe has a very strong addiction to Google I may think that Google has in fact two center of decisions(one for America and one for the rest of the world) However Google has a so huge amount of offices in the United States which make me think that the final decision are taking in the United States which include a hierarchy among those centers of decisions.
2, From Geocentrism to Regionalism: How Google gets rank first? Google.com is not the most visited search engine on the web, and it will be for sure a surprise for you .it is in fact Yahoo.com according to Alexa web. Here is the ranking of the 50 most visited websites in the world for 2008 filtered with the keywords Yahoo and Google: Rank Site 1 Www.yahoo.com 2 Www.google.com 10 Www.yahoo.co.jp 14 Www.google.co.in 15 Www.google.de 19 Www.google.fr 21 Www.google.co.uk 26 Www.google.co.br 29 Www.google.it 34 Www.google.es 35 Www.google.co.jp 42 Www.google.com.mx
As we can see Google.com is not the first one .It is in fact Yahoo.com and Yahoo.co.jp is taking the next position ranked in the list. What makes in fact Google being the first search engine in the world is the accumulation of his domain names and the translation of his home pages in almost all the languages of the world. This is in fact a very young and simple strategy Google's South Arabia Home Page that Google adapted here. One year and a half after his creation Google was already available in 13 languages.
5,Why at that time his competitors did not do the same?
实际上只有雅虎在谷歌的浪潮中生存。Actually only Yahoo survived to the Google's wave during the last decade. Mainly because his main world competitor: Yahoo has an interface which is too heavy to translate and need dedicated people(such as local people) to make the updates. Google did in fact what no other search engines did: gathering minorities. Nowadays Google customized his interface for more than 138 countries. The only countries which are not included yet and which are for the biggest one: Bhoutan, Birmania, Surinam, Burkina Faso, Yemen, Togo, Cameroon, Chyprus, Sierra Leone, Syria, Liberia, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Gabon. http://fr.yahoo.com/ On a map it gives this: Where Google does not provide a specific interface for the country .As you can see Google's service is customized for almost all the world(including islands and countries such as Greenland which has around 50,000 inhabitants). Google is going far further than touching each country individually .It goes as well within regions, as an example it is providing a customized interface to several regions in France: Here France has been divided especially for five regions.