In order to understand the concept of academic discourse one, must know what the meaning academic discourse is. Discourse is a common word. The word of discourse can be interchanged with discussion or conversation in everyday speech or writi
In order to understand the concept of academic discourse one, must know what the meaning academic discourse is. Discourse is a common word. The word of discourse can be interchanged with discussion or conversation in everyday speech or writing (Washington State Libraries). Discourse is a formal discussion of a subject with using speech or writing using the communication of words. Discourse is a written or spoken method of a subject which is handled or discussed at length (Washington State Libraries). The discourse between individuals needs to have some of the same characteristics. For example they need to speak the same language (Elbow). However more goes into the discourse between these individuals than just the same language. The discourse has shared assumptions and the same cultural values, even shared slang. Groups of people that share these qualities are called discourse communities (Washington State Libraries). Doctors, scientists, law officials and mechanics make up their own different discourse community. Usually to be accepted in the discourse community one will have to be able to communicate in the certain professions lingo (Elbow, 137). Discourse communities have certain lingo, norms and common understanding when communicating with in the community. This especially goes for writing.
If two articles are compared, one from the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation and an article from the International Journal of Police Science and Management, the differences can be easily depicted.
The discourse of a journal also means how it is set up. In the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation the articles are set up in a certain way. In the top left hand corner of the article is where the type of article is shown. In the case of the Article “Scaling from field to region for wind erosion prediction using Wind Erosion Prediction System and geographical information systems” the type of article is called “Applied Research”. Right under that is the Title of the article in bold black print that is a larger font than the rest of the article. Under the title is the list of the authors, which is usually double, spaced from the title of the article. Another two spaces is the “abstract”. The “abstract” is a short summary paragraph of the article; after the “abstract” are the “key terms” of the article. Double spaced from the “key terms” is the “introduction”. The introduction’s first sentence of the article is bolded in black. The rest of the article is then broke up into “materials and method”, “results and discussions” and “summary and conclusions”. In the “methods and materials” part of the article is just the tests and materials used in the experiments. There are usually graphs and tables in the “methods and materials” too. Each of the graphs and maps are labeled, figure 1 or figure 2, it matters the orders in which they appear. Each one also has a short description of what the figure represents. The “result and discussion” part of the article just explains the results from the experiments done and discusses how the results came about. The “results and discussions” also has figures that show the results of the experiments and test. The “summary and conclusions” is the how and why bit of the paper. In this part of the article they explain why some of the results came out the way they did and then it makes conclusions from all the information of the “results” part of the article. The article always has figures that show and back up the conclusion presented. Once the “summary and conclusions” is finished the article has “acknowledgements”. The “acknowledgements” give praise to the companies and people who funded the research presented in the article. After the “acknowledgements” is the “references” in which the authors give other authors and people recognition for the ideas and information they used for the article.
In the Journal of Police Science and management set their article up a little different than that of the natural resources journal. In the top left corner of the first page the article gives the journals name and the volume of it. They center the “title” which is bolded in black and the font is larger too. Right under the “title” is the author’s names addresses and email addresses. Also there is the date in which the article was received, edited and accepted in the journal. Under this information are the “key words” of the article. After the “key words” is information on each of the authors. This information includes the author’s education, career, position and achievements. They have this information for each author. After all the information about the authors is the “abstract” which is a one paragraph quick summary of the article. In this journal the “abstract is italicized. After the “abstract is the “introduction” to the article. The rest of the paper is broken up into subtopics that is bolded in black and is in larger font so it is easy to follow. The article does have information that is presented in graphs and tables and each one is labeled in figures. Under the labels is the description of what each graph is presenting. At the end of the article is the “conclusion” in which the authors make conclusions from the information they presented in the article. The “references” is after the “conclusion”. The “references” part of the article is where the authors give recognition to the people in whom they took ideas and information from.
The information given about the two different journal articles shows that each of these discourse communities have different ways in which they convey information to their community. Each of these discourses even cite their references different. Not everyone can read an article out of the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation and understand all that is said. This is because the journal in the natural resource uses vocabulary and lingo that is not commonly used or seen. Some one that would understand these articles of the natural resources will either be in this field or have some knowledge of this discourse. Even if one knows definition to certain words in the article, the words could have a different meaning in which they are commonly defined by. The article in the Journal of Police science and Management is much easier to read and follow. The article flows well, kind of like a story or explanation. This article does not split up into parts that have tests and materials. These articles in this journal usually use common vocabulary that anyone can read and won’t have to have much knowledge of the profession. This journal uses APA style to cite sources while the Journal of Soil and Water Conservation uses the style of CBE.
In conclusion discourse in the two professions use different lingo and jargon in their discussions of a subject. This is the same for any two different discourse communities. Discourse is a style of writing and conversation of a formal subject (Washington State Libraries).
Washington State University Libraries. (2006). What is Discourse? Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/electric/trainingmods/gened300/Academic_Disciplines/discourse.htm
Feng G. & Sharratt B. (2007). Scaling from field to region for wind erosion prediction using the Wind Erosion Prediction System and geographical information systems. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 62, 321-328.
Elbow P. (1991). Reflection on Academic Discourse: How It Relates to Freshman and Colleagues. ProQuest Education Journals, 53, 135-155.
Holgersson S. & Gottschalk P. & Dean G. (2007). Knowledge management in law enforcement: knowledge views for patrolling police officers. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 10, 1, 76-88.
为了理解这个概念的学术话语之一，必须知道什么意思的学术话语。话语是一种常见的字。在日常讲话或写（华盛顿州立图书馆）的讨论或对话的话语的话可以互换。话语是一个正式的讨论一个主题用言语或书写使用的通信话。话语是长度（华盛顿州立图书馆）处理或讨论一个主题，就是一个书面或口头的方法。个体之间的话语需要具有一些相同的特征。例如，他们需要讲同一种语言（弯头） 。然而进入这些个人不仅仅是相同的语言之间的话语。话语共享的假设和相同的文化价值，甚至共享俚语。团体分享这些特质的人，被称为话语社区（华盛顿州立图书馆） 。医生，科学家，法律官员和力学弥补自己的不同的话语共同体。通常被接受的话语社区将能够在一定的专业术语沟通（弯头， 137 ） 。话语社区在通信时，在社会上有一定的行话来说，规范和共同理解。尤其是写作。
一本杂志的话语也意味着它是如何设立。在水土保持杂志上的文章都以某种方式。在左上角的文章的文章类型。在缩放条“从田间到地区风蚀预测风蚀预报系统和地理信息系统”的文章类型被称为“应用研究”的情况下。下，是标题黑色粗体打印的文章，这是一个更大的字体比其余的文章。的标题下的作者，这通常是双，隔开文章标题列表。另外两个空格是“抽象” 。 “抽象”是一个简短的总结文章第一段的“抽象”后的“主要条款”的文章。双击“主要条款”隔开“引进来” 。介绍文章的第一句是粗体黑色。然后，其余的文章分手“材料与方法” ， “结果与讨论”和“总结和结论” 。文章中的“方法和材料”的一部分，仅仅是在实验中使用的测试和材料。通常有图表和表格中的“方法和材料” 。每个图表和地图标记，图1或图2 ，它很重要，他们出现的订单。每个人也有一个简短的描述的数字代表什么。 “结果与讨论”部分的文章，解释实验的结果，讨论的结果如何来的。 “结果与讨论”中也有数字表明实验和测试的结果。 “摘要和结论”是如何以及为什么位的纸张。在这一部分的文章中，他们解释为什么一些结果出来他们的方式，然后作出结论“结果”部分的文章的所有信息。文章总是有数字显示和备份的结论。一旦完成“摘要和结论”的文章有“确认” 。 “确认”谁资助了这项研究的文章中提出的公司和人民给予好评。经过“确认”是“引用”作者的思想和他们的文章中使用的信息给其他作家和人民的认可。
在杂志“科学警察和管理他们的文章中设置了一个略有不同的自然资源杂志。在左上角的第一页的文章给出的期刊名和它的体积。他们中心是粗体黑色和较大的字体太“标题” 。有权根据“标题”是作者的名字，地址和电子邮件地址。也有文章，在杂志编辑和接受。根据这一信息， “关键词”的文章。 “关键词”是对每个作者的信息。此信息包括作者的教育，职业，地位和成就。他们有这样的信息，每个作者。作者的所有信息后，是“抽象的” ，这是一款快速的文章摘要。在本期刊“抽象斜体。 “抽象后的”引进来“的文章。本文其余部分被分成副标题是粗体黑色和更大的字体，所以很容易遵循。文章确实有信息，以图形和表格，每一个数字标记。根据标签是描述每个图形呈现什么。在文章的结尾，作者做出结论的信息，他们在文章中提出的“结论” 。 “参考”后的“结论” 。 “参考”部分的文章是作者表扬他们把思想和信息的人。
华盛顿州立大学图书馆。 （2006年） 。话语是什么？ 2008年3月8日，从http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/electric/trainingmods/gened300/Academic_Disciplines/discourse.htm
冯G.＆沙拉特B. （2007） 。缩放从田间到地区的风蚀预测使用风蚀预报系统和地理信息系统。中国水土保持，62， 321-328 。
弯头P. （1991） 。学术话语的思考：如何与到大一和他的同事。 PROQUEST教育期刊，53， 135-155 。
Holgersson ·戈特沙尔克体育与院长G. （2007） 。执法知识管理：知识观巡逻警察。国际杂志警方科学与管理， 10， 1， 76-88 。